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· Bentham's Utilitarianism
· Saviour Siblings and PGD
· Hedonic Calculus
· J S Mill's Utilitarianism
· Act Utilitarianism
· Rule Utilitarianism
· Peter Singer
· Application to Religion
· 30 Mark Questions
· 15 Mark Questions…read more

Slide 2

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BENTHAM…read more

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Bentham's Utilitarianism
Bentham came up with the concept of Utilitarianism looking
for the greatest good for the greatest number. In other words
the most happiness = the most moral. Bentham's
utilitarianism can be divided into 3 parts:
· Hedonistic Utilitarianism
· Principle of Utility
· Utility or Hedonic Calculus
Hedonistic Utilitarianism Principle of Utility
Bentham's Utilitarianism can be viewed The rightness or wrongness of an action,
as Hedonistic as it seeks to find the Bentham believes, is based on utility,
greatest good. Hedonism is the belief that meaning usefulness of an action. In this
pleasure is the chief "Good" and Bentham situation the term usefulness means the
argued that pleasure was the sole good amount of happiness is produced.
and that pain was the sole evil. This lead Utilitarianism is a teleological theory
Bentham to believe that it's a moral fact because of this, as I means it determines a
that pleasure and pain should be good act by the consequences of the action.
identified as what we should or shouldn't However Bentham argued that it must be
do. the greatest happiness for the greatest
number.…read more

Slide 4

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Bentham's Hedonic Calculus
The utility of an action is measured by the hedonic calculus which has seven factors, six
originally thought up by Bentham and one added later.
Intensity Duration Certainty
How intense will the How long will the How certain is the
consequential pleasure pleasure last for? pleasure? What's the
be? probability?
Propinquity Fecundity Purity
How distant is the Does it have the chance of Is the pleasure pure? Or
pleasure? The closer the being followed by is it mixed with Pain?
better sensations of the same
Extent The Hedonic Calculus
The more people that the means that pleasure can
get the pleasure is the be calculated in a
better quantitative way.…read more

Slide 5

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Term: screening and selecting embryos for desired genes
Designer Why would you want to do this?
· Saviour siblings Parents have to go
Babies · Gender selection
· Cosmetic Selection through IVF
Saviour Siblings Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
siblings in which are born and are A technique enabling people with
genetically screened and selected to specific inherited condition in their
save the life of sibling child. First Saviour family to avoid passing it onto their
sibling born in the UK is Max Matthews children.
who treated his sister Megan for her PGD is only licensed in the UK for some
Faconi Anaemia. case such as:
· Alzheimers disease
· Alpers Syndrome
· Cystic Fibrosis
· Downs Syndrome
Gender Selection
Selecting the desired gander of your
child. In the UK this is only legal for
medical reasons such as Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy…read more

Slide 6

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Application of PGD and saviour siblings to the hedonic calculus
Intensity Duration Certainty Propinquit Fecundity Purity Extent
Having a If child Short, as Likelihood Pleasure Pleasure Pleasure Family and
child falls ill, the child of illness. instant at will keep mixed with child.
without pleasure will be ill. birth but illness in pain.
PGD will drop. stop when blood line.
Having a Pleasure Child will Removes Pleasure Will Pure Family and
child with of healthy live life inherited instant and remove pleasure of child
PGD child will without gene so ill free gene so will healthy
be intense illness certain. not pass on child
in future
Having a Pleasure May lead If child Saviour The child Pain for The child will
saviour be to health lives the child could may live child being live and their
sibling intensified of sick pleasure is start saving but not born for will be
child if child child. certain. straight certain. body another child.
survived Other may after birth. parts.
feel left
Not having Very little Very short No Pleasure is No Pain Your child
a saviour once child pleasure very continuous and family.
sibling is ill. for child or distant as pleasure.
child family. child is ill.…read more

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Thanks for the application to PGD and Saviour Siblings in the Calculus grid. I'll use this. 

N.B. It should read Socrates dissatisfied in the quotation. 



Haha did not realise that! Thank you! Good luck with you exam!



Thankyou for doing this! It's helping me cope with my AS re! :) hope youre getting no well as this was from 2013!



Hi I am Miles and I do RE

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