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Slide 1

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FREUD = psychoanalysist, studied why + how society is religion inevitably plays a part
Atheist, influenced by science God = illusion, father figure construct
1. "Totem + Taboo" Darwinism
· Primitive Society "primal horde" ­ dominant
fathers, lower sons
· Jealousy = kills father, marry mother "OC"
opp. Girls
· Carried out = guilt revere totems of
· TIME = divine significance OMNIP God 2. Religion is perpetuated today due to
5. Hostile OC = individual is torn between
· Supports N's "God is Dead" constraints of society and
· Religion inhibits true, scientific subconscious desires of ID to act out
understanding of H nature = OC
crutch for psychologically weak · Guilt = outlet angst = religion
· Harness OC + overcome religion (comforts us against fear of death,
father figure, OmniB ­ despte flawed
· RE = subconscious desire to be close
mum "oceanic feeling" = womb
4. Some benefits
· constraints enforced by
SUPEREGO (conscience) defend · Threat to RB = construct, not
from social anarchy obj real
· Comfort defend from mental · "Collective neurosis" = mental
breakdown illness, rites = OCD…read more

Slide 2

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6.2 Jung's view of religion
Analytic psychology religion = important to 2. Collective unconscious
H. Nature/development · Contains our knowledge of concepts
· Critical of outward regiment of religious 1. "Personal Unconscious ­ individual + · Expressed through images (mental +
ritual "Collective Unconscious" ­ shared by physical) e.g dreams, myths, symbols
· Favoured inward spiritual journey = RE humanity = shared history and chain of ARCHETYPES
events that led human nature to be as it is · Helps us understand and relate
4. In order to be psychologically healthy =
INDIVIDUATION, in which God and rb have
3. God = ARCHETYPE of the most perfect an important role
moral being, and wholeness that is · We strive to better ourselves, to
expressed through images of religion overcome negs (vices) and cultivate pos
· "The shadow" dark side of human nature (virtues)
Agnostic about God in reality ­ positive
· "Animus" male nature ­ Adam · In order to achieve this, the archetype of and real effects make God real in the mind
· "Anima" female nature - Eve SELF, uses the archetype of God = most
morally/spiritual perfect/balance
· By relating to this archetype, we learn to
integrate pos+neg and BALANCE our
unconscious + conscious…read more

Slide 3

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6.3 Who's views are more valuable ­ Jung or Freud?
F's pessimistic view "neurosis" OCD, caused by OC = influenced many in the 20th C. = arguably led to increased rate of
J's view as healthy, necessary to psych development are also influential
Which has more relevance/legitimacy?
1. Although proved to explain some aspects of religion (e.g.dependency), through natural,
psychology causes. F = criticised for focusing on NEG FX, ignoring positive fx e.g. Stress,
2. Doesn't accommodate for these fx, for he reduces all aspects of religion down to OC = neg
3. Furthermore ­ many science/psychologists disregard OC + PH = IF oc was true ­ how
would religions like Buddhism = no concept of God, or hinduism = goddesses ­ evil gods
4. JUNG presents more positive view ­ highlights benefits e.g. Contentment
5. HW criticised view that religion = necessary for psych development psych healthy
CONCLUSION 1. Considering God's ex is neither proven/disproven = F's view of religion as H. Construct =
2. Jung's views have more value today considering F's explanation = widely disregarded…read more

Slide 4

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5. F = disregarded as based on speculation, not fact ignores proof of pos fx
4. For most = psych beneficial, not "crutch"
· 1. JUNG ­ religion =
natural part of h nature =
3. HW purpose = not extrinsic = unfortunate byproduct
necessary to psychological
2. Negative = worrying ­ disturbed
1. Both pos/neg health = INDIVIDUATION
CONCLUSION · Balanced mind + come to
terms with personality
· 2. ARGYLE ­ provides
comfort, deal stress e.g.
Divorce, bereavement,
fear of death = meditation
+ prayer
· 3. Gives meaning and
· 4. Promotes values crucial
to community = gratitude
­ sense of security and
· 1.
F argued­religion
unites = H.
· Construct
PROOF = caused
low crime fear
by rate,
of death,
suicide, repression
reform of
= positive
moral/spiritual in the
and desire change
· 5. Extremism +
· Therefore "universal
fundamentalism =
neurosis" = dependency
extrinsic, immature rel,
on illusory
based system
on false + weak
claims, not
mental state ­ =
reflective, personal e.g.
by ritesgrowth
emphasis sinfulness + evil
of humanity reduces self-
esteem and incites
unnecessary guilt
· Extreme cases =
(cults/mass suicide) or
6.4 Is religion unhealthy?
religions (terrorism 9/11)…read more

Slide 5

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RBs believe to be the greater reality over psychology
2. However theoretical notion on origions or religion = THEORY = unuseful for Atheist + irrelevant to RB, as
1. Useful in measuring fx of religion e.g. Pos/neg fx
1. Criticise psychologists for subbing psych for religion = reduces all complex 1. Argyle: psychological surveys/experiments = much useful
matters of rb to natural, psychological causes info about fx of religion on mind e.g. Prayer/meditation ­
2. Argyle: wrongly creates conflict between religion and science when it doesn'tused in psychological practise
have authority e.g. F claims rel = H construct = SPECULATIVE not based on fact
· 2. Enquiries eg WJ into RE, provide arguably Emp.ev
3. So ­tracing causes of rel ­ psychology has little value as a fundamentally
supporting rel = profound benefits
behavioural field ­ cannot provide proof of God's ex/non-ex
4. Much psychological evidence = criticised for manipulation/generalisation · 3. Conversely ­ Atheists may find useful ­ psychological
applies in certain time or place theories e.g Freud = confirmation that rel = h. construct
it aid us in our understanding of rel?
6.5 Is psychology of religion useful? Many Q the utility of psych investigation ­ can…read more


jooles 2005

 difficult to read too much information on each slide. Background image whilst good to look at makes it confusing

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