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Bentham's Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is the basic principle that the rightness or wrongness of an action is
determined by its utility or usefulness.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory which is teleological which means that it stresses that
an action is right or wrong depending on…

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extreme, all leisure activity would stop. Rule
utilitarianism deals with this issue.

John Stuart Mill's Approach

Mill was also a hedonist and stressed happiness rather than pleasure was of the greatest
Mill modified Bentham's approach with an emphasis on the quality of the pleasure rather
than the quantity of…

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More intelligent and thoughtful
approach than Bentham's theory
Comparison of Bentham & Mill

Bentham Mill
"The greatest good (pleasure) for the "The greatest happiness for the
greatest number" greatest number"

Focus on the individual alone We should protect the common good ­
Quantitative ­ hedonic calculus
Qualitative ­ higher…

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To invoke rules means that the
approach becomes deontological not

Preference Utilitarianism

Singer modified Bentham & Mill's version and came up with the alternative ­ Preference
A utilitarian theory interested in the best consequences for those involved rather than
what creates the most pleasure and the least pain.…

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Mill's version of utilitarianism focus' on higher and lower pleasures.
It can be argued that embryo research is a higher pleasure because of knowledge you
gain ­ scientific and you have a duty to share the knowledge.
However, it can be argued that it is a lower pleasure as it…

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A utilitarian would argue that this is The negative consequences of
true via the principle of utility ­ the allowing the suffering to continue may
idea of that being the maximise outweigh any shortterm good
pleasure and minimise pain. This statement could lead to
Bentham would argue that it is…

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`Utilitarianism is only concerned with the happiness of the community, not the happiness
of the individual.' How far do you agree?

The example of the sadistic guards is Rules may promote the `higher'
an example of where the happiness of pleasures (e.g. subsidise ballet and
the majority is…

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the immediate terms that could be
applied to utilitarianism.


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