• The general principles of Utilitarianism: the greatest happiness principle; consequential or teleological thinking in contrast to deontological thinking
• Bentham’s Utilitarianism, the hedonic calculus
• Mill’s Utilitarianism, quality over quantity
• Act and Rule utilitarianism
• The application of Bentham’s and Mill’s principles to one ethical issue of the candidate’s choice apart from abortion and euthanasia
• Strengths and weaknesses of the ethical systems of Bentham
• Which is more important – the ending of pain and suffering, or
the increase of pleasure?
• How worthwhile is the pursuit of happiness, and is it all that
• How compatible is Utilitarianism with a religious approach to
• Abortion: definitions for the start of human life and their relevance
to the abortion debate, including: potentiality, conception,
primitive streak, viability, birth
– The value of potential life – differing views
– Mother’s versus child’s interests, double effect
– Ethical issues involved in legislation about abortion
• Euthanasia: active or passive, voluntary, involuntary and non-
– Ethical issues involved in legislation about euthanasia; issues
concerning quality of life and their relevance to the euthanasia
– The role of hospices and palliative care (as alternatives to
Abortion and Euthanasia AO1
• Arguments for and against abortion and euthanasia with reference to religious and ethical teachings
Abortion and euthanasia AO2
• Does the definition of human life stop abortion being murder?
• Can abortion and euthanasia ever be said to be ‘good’?
• Do humans have a right to life, and a right to choose to die?