a2 sociology crime and deviance

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  • A2 Crime and Deviance
    • Functionalist, strain and subcultural theories
      • Functionalist
        • Durkheim - inevitability of crime - boundary maintenance - adaptation and change
      • Strain
        • Merton - structural vs cultural factors - American Dream
        • Deviant adaptations to strain
      • Subcultural
        • A.K Cohen; status frustration
        • Cloward and Ohlin; three subcultures
    • Interactionist and labelling theory
      • Social construction of crime
        • Becker - crime is socially constructed to create outsiders
        • Cicourel - typifications - negotiation of justice - topic versus resource
      • Effects of labelling
        • Primary and secondary deviance
        • Deviance amplification spiral
        • Braithwaite - Types of shaming
      • Mental illness and suicide
        • Suicide - Young - should look at the meanings behind OS to unravel true cause
        • Mental illness - Lemert - the role of secondary and primary deviance in mental illness
    • Class, power and crime
      • Marxism
        • Criminogenic Capitalism
        • Selective enforcement
        • Ideological function of crime
      • Explaining class differences
        • Strain; ability to achieve success legitimately is blocked
          • Functionalism; failure to socialise into society
      • Crimes of the powerful
        • White collar and corporate crime
          • The invisibility of corporate crime - partial visibility?
          • Explanations - strain theory - differential association - marxism
    • Realist theories of crime
      • Right Realism
        • Causes of crime - biological and socialisation differences - rational choice theory
        • Tackling crime - zero-tolerance - target hardening
      • Left Realism
        • Causes of crime - relative deprivation, subculture and marginality
          • Late modernity, exclusion and crime
            • Media-saturated society - emphasis on personal, leisure consumption and the ideology of meritocracy
        • Tackling crime - Military policing, structural causes and government policies
    • Gender and crime
      • Chivalry these
        • Bias against women
      • Explaining female crime
        • Functionalist sex role theory and Heidensohn; patriarchal control
      • Male crime
        • Messerschmidt - Masculinity and crime
        • Winlow; postmodernity, masculinity and crime
    • Ethnicity and crime
      • ethnicity + criminalisation
        • Alternative Statistics
        • The criminal justice system and racism
      • Differences in offending
        • Left-realism - Lea and Young
        • Neo-marxism - Gilroy; the myth of black criminality
      • Ethnicity and victimisation
        • Racist incidents and racially aggravated crimes
        • Responses to victimisation - Stephen Lawrence
    • Crime and the media
      • Untitled
    • Globalisation, green crime, human rights and state crime
    • Control, punishment and victims

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