TOPIC D NOTES PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2

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JONES (1924): curing a boy's phobia
AIM: to investigate whether a phobia in a little boy could be deconditioned and
whether this would generalize to other objects
PROCEDURE: Jones watched 2YearOld Peter playing with beads as an
experimenter showed him a white rat
Peter screamed, and he was moved away leaving his beads behind
When the rats touched Peter's beads he protested but didn't when another child
touched them
The next day, Peter's reaction do different objects were observed, and his fear of
rats had generalized to other objects
Hat with feathers: Cried
White cloth rabbit: No fear
Cotton balls: whimpered, cried, and withdrew
Fur coat over cot: Cried until it was removed
Peter was also shown a rabbit and he was more afraid of this than the rat, so a
rabbit was used for deconditioning
New situations were used to get Peter closer to the object:
A) Rabbit in cage anywhere causes fear
B) Accepts rabbit in cage 4 metres away
C) Accepts rabbit in cage 1.3 metres away
D) Accepts rabbit in cage 1 metre away
E) Rabbit accepted freely in the room
F) Rabbit touched when experiment holding it
G) Peter reacts badly to rabbit however, imitated it
H) Rabbit allowed on tray of highchair
I) Squats beside rabbit
J) Helps experimenter to carry rabbit to cage
K) Holds rabbit on lap
L) Alone in room with rabbit
M) In playpen with rabbit
N) Fondles rabbit
O) Lets rabbit nibble fingers
RESULTS: changes above were not continuous or equally spaced in time
Peter's behaviour improved and worsened
Six people given list AQ in random order and were asked to put it them in order
of improvement TOLARENCE SERIES
Other children acted as role models as they would hold the rabbit in front of
Peter
Classical conditioning was also used as the rabbit came into the room at the
same time as food, and food made him happy

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CONCLUSION: Both classical conditioning and social learning helped to
decondition Peter. Also helped to reduce generalized fears and helped Peter cope
with new animals.…read more

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FINDINGS: Animals, in order of most feared: rat, cockroach, jellyfish, spider, slug,
grass snake, beetle, lizard, frog and so on... Least scary: (least scary first): Rabbit,
ladybird, cat, lamb
Men and women judged ugliness in the similar ways
Overall, BennettLevy and Marteau found some important patterns.…read more

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TREATING PHOBIAS
FLOODING
Extreme therapy, based on the theory of classical conditioning
Involves facing your fear directly E.G if you had a fear of snakes, you would have
to deal with being near snakes to overcome it.…read more

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The therapist teaches the patient relaxation techniques, to help cope with the
exposure to the phobia
4) Starting with lowest fear rating, the therapist introduces them to the fear, and
then helps them relaxed. When they are ready they can move on to the next step
5) The patient moves up the hierarchy, becoming more relaxed each time, until
they reach their most feared situation.…read more

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Multiagency working
Research, and more
HOW THE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST WORKS
Makes an assessment of the problem
Plans an intervention
Evaluates the intervention
ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS
Starts by assessing a client's needs
Gather as much evidence as possible, and make observations of current
behaviour
Might use psychometric testing, which involves standardized tests
They could measure stress levels or negative thinking, as well as life
pressures for example
PLANNING AN INTERVENTION
Solution: therapy, counseling, and advice: the next step forward
KEEPING RECORD AND EVALUATION
During and after…read more

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Learn to ask open questions
Being able to look at your own experiences and how these affect others
These can be achieved through training
QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED
1) Degree in psychology, which is recognized by the BPS (most psychology
degrees are)
2) Must get relevant work experience
3) Get a doctorate in Clinical Psychology
CHARTERED STATUS
This means you have satisfied the requirements of the BPS and have sufficient
qualifications and experience to be called a `psychologist'
Also involves CPD programme
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PHOBIAS
CBT…read more

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HYPNOTHERAPY
Involves helping the client to get into a relaxed state
In this state they are not focusing on their everyday problems but have a
heightened level of awareness where they can accept suggestions from the
therapist to overcome the phobia
PSYCHODYNAMICBASED THERAPIES
Focus on understanding the phobia, but not often used by psychologists
Many feel that it is not scientifically tested and should not be used as a therapy
HEINRICHS ET AL (2005): Cultural differences in fears
Firstly, what is social anxiety?
A fear…read more

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HIGHEST SOCIAL ANXIETY TO LOWEST:
Japan, Korea, Spain, USA, Canada, Australia, The Netherlands, Germany
CONCLUSION
CC's show greater social anxiety and fear of blushing than IC.…read more

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