Unit 2: Topic 1 – Cognitive Psychology
The process of developing mental ability involving
memory, language, problem solving, perception
Cornea, Transparent cover on the front of the eye that
allows light in while also protecting it.
Eye, Sense organ that is sensitive to light.
Eye Witness Testimony, The account of an event (usually a crime) that a
person who was a witness to the event makes,
relying only on their memory.
Gestalt principles; whole
The emphasis on the whole (perceptual image) is
always greater than the sum of its parts. This
means that the visual image is more than just a
sum of component parts.
Iris, A circular muscle that contracts and relaxes
depending on light intensity.
Lens, The lens, by changing shape, functions to change
the focal distance of the eye so that it can focus on
objects at various distances.
LTM, (Long-Term Memory) A long-term store for items and events that are
Memory, The mental process by which we are able to input,
store and retrieve information about events in the
world that have happened to us.
Optic nerve, Carries information from the eye to the brain.
Perception, The process of changing information received
from the environment into an experience of
objects, sounds etc.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive
The sensori-motor stage;
The pre-operational stage;
Concrete operational stage;
Formal operational stage;
Pupil, A hole in the middle of the iris.
Retina, Contains the cells that are sensitive to light.
Scaffolding, Interaction with the world can increase a child's
Schemas (Constructive Memory), An organised store of knowledge about previous
experiences which helps us make decisions about
future events. They also help us to fill in any gaps
in our knowledge based on past information.
GCSE Psychology Teachers’ Guide 32
Stereotypes, A way of defining a person (or people) using
readily available features (e.g. skin colour or
gender) in ways that focus on these rather than
STM, (Short-Term Memory) A short-term store for items that are remembered.
The process of interpreting, organising and
elaborating information received through the visual
system (sensory information).
Zone of Proximal Development –
The child can move from their zone of actual
development into the zone of proximal
development through interaction with peers and
Unit 2: Topic 2 – Individual Differences
ADHD (Extreme) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder –
a childhood disorder characterised by high levels of
activity and failure to concentrate.
Chemotherapy, A therapy for mental illness involving giving the
client drugs to change chemical levels in the brain.
Depression; (unipolar – bipolar) Extreme feelings of sadness and low self-esteem.
Deviation from social norms, Abnormal behaviour defined by a group norm/not
behaving in a way that society would expect e.g.
ECT Electro Convulsive Therapy. A treatment for
depression involving an electrical shock current
being introduced to the body.
Implosion/Flooding, A treatment for phobias involving the person facing
up to their fear in an unconscious way.
Phobias, An anxiety disorder/a persistent and unreasonable
fear of an object or situation.
Psychosurgery, A treatment for mental disorder involving removal of
brain tissue to change levels in the brain and
Schizophrenia, Serious mental illness characterised by disruptions
in psychological functioning.
Statistical infrequency, A definition of psychology based around behaviour
that is statistically rare in the population.
Systematic Desensitisation, A treatment for phobias involving creating an anxiety
hierarchy based around the fear.
Unit 2: Topic 3 – Ethics and Research Issues in Ps
Aim, A statement of what the researchers intend to find
Case Studies, A detailed investigation of one person or a small
Consent, Giving permission.
Correlation, A method to establish the strength of a relationship
between two variables.
Deception, When participates are not told the truth about the
purpose of the research.
Dependent Variable, The variable that is measured.
Ethics, Understanding of behaviour.
Experiments, A method involving the manipulation of the
independent variable in order to measure the effect
on the DV.
Hypothesis, A testable statement to prove or disprove a theory
Independent Groups, Two separate groups are studied under different
experimental conditions to aid manipulation of the
Independent Variable, The variable that is manipulated to test the effect
on the DV.
Matched Pairs, Two separate groups are studied and participants
are matched on every possible characteristic, e.g.
age, gender, IQ, in order to reduce individual
Measures of central tendency, A way of describing numerical data including
Mean, The added values of a set of numbers divided by
the number of values.
Mode, Most occurring number.
Median, Middle score in a range of scores.
Observations, A method that involves watching and recording
Repeated Measures, Using the same group of participants in both
Sampling, The method used to select participants from a
given population including systematic, random,
opportunity and volunteer.
Surveys, A method of investigation that gathers data by
asking people (questionnaires and interviews).
Ways of displaying data E.g. scattergraph/bar chart.