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  • Created by: mushy1499
  • Created on: 25-04-16 16:37
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Importance as a solvent in transport:
Have an uneven charge distribution, as the O molecule is -
and the H is + (Dipolar).
This means ionic substances (e.g. salt) dissolve easily as
the ions are separated due to the polar nature of water.
Hydrogen bonds form between the two molecules of H20 which
creates cohesion.
This helps water to flow, making it good for transporting
It takes a long time to heat and cool down water which means
living organisms can survive as temperature fluctuations are
Monosaccharides- Single sugar unit
Disaccharides- 2 sugar units bonded by glycosidic bonds e.g.
Sucrose - (glucose + fructose) form in which sugar is transported in a
Maltose - (glucose + glucose) produced when amylase breaks down
Lactose - (galactose + glucose) the sugar found in milk
Polysaccharides- Long chains of glucose molecules e.g. Starch,
The bonds that form between Monosaccharides are glycosidic bonds.
In the reaction that forms a glycosidic bond there is a loss of one
molecule of water, this is called a condensation reaction.
Hydrolysis breaks the glycosidic bond, adding back the water

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Starch and Glycogen
STARCH-Starch is the main energy storage material in plants. It is
made up of a mixture of two molecules, amylose and amylopectin:
Amylose- a long, unbrached chain of glucose joined together by 1-4
glycosidic bonds. The angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coiled
structure. This makes it compact and good for storage. It is also
insoluble water so it does not swell be osmosis.
Amylopectin- a long, branched chain of glucose joined by 1-4 and 1-6
glycosidic bonds.…read more

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Circulatory Systems 1
Unicellular Organisms:
Substances and materials such as glucose and oxygen diffuse
directly into the cell. The diffusion rate is quick because of the
short distance the substances have to travel.
Multicellular Organisms:
Diffusion would be too slow to move substances round the larger
bodies of multicellular organisms as they have a smaller surface
area to volume ratio. They have mass transport systems
(circulatory system).…read more

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Cardiac Cycle
ATRIAL SYSTOLE Pressure in the atria increases as they fill with
blood. Increased pressure opens the atrioventricular valves allowing
blood to enter the ventricles. The atria contracts to force remaining blood
into the ventricles.
VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE Ventricles contract from the base up,
increasing the pressure and closing the atrioventricular valves. The semi
lunar valves open and blood is forced into the arteries.
DIASTOLE As the atria and ventricles relax, pressure falls. In the
ventricles this causes closure of the semi lunar valves.…read more

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Transfer one daphnia onto a cavity slide and place the slide under a
3. Place a small drop of caffeine solution onto the daphnia.
4. Count the number of heartbeats in 10 seconds and multiply by six to
get bpm.
5. Repeat the experiment using a different concentration.
For: Very simple organism with basic nervous system.
Against: Any use of animals is wrong as we can't determine how much
pain it feels.…read more

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The narrowing of the artery leads to high blood pressure, which
means it is more likely for more plaques to form
Risk Factors of CVD
Tendency to high blood pressure and poor cholesterol metabolism
Arteries that are more easily damaged
Mutations in genes that affect relative HDL:LDL levels in blood
Gender Oestrogen can give women some protection
Ageing Elasticity and width of arteries decrease with age
Diet Saturated fats, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels
High blood pressure should not be sustained 140/90
Smoking ­ Nicotine…read more

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Plant Statins lowers cholesterol level in the blood by reducing the
amount of cholesterol absorbed from the gut. A lower blood cholesterol
level reduces atheroma formation. Risks: they can reduce the absorption
of some vitamins from the gut.
Anticoagulants Reduces the formation of blood clots. These drugs
include: warfarin, heparin. Risks: uncontrolled bleeding if patient has
Platelet Inhibitory Drugs (e.g. Aspirin) Makes platelets less sticky.
Risks: Rashes, diarrhoea, nausea.
Cholesterol is not soluble in water.…read more

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Titrate the vitamin C solution with the DCIPI and gently shake the
4. When the solution goes from blue to colourless, the right volume of
vitamin C has been added.
5. Repeat the experiment twice more, with the same solution and take
an average.
6. Make sure all variables are constant e.g. same volume of DCPIP.
7. Use the results to make a calibration curve of DCPIP against vitamin
C conc.…read more

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Sample Size the greater the number of people used in a study, the
more reliable the results.
Variables the more variables that have been controlled in a study, the
more reliable the results.
Data Collection the less bias involved in collecting the data, the more
reliable the results.
Controls the presence of controls increases the reliability of the results.
Correlation An increase in one is accompanied by an increase in the
Causation A change in one is responsible for a change in the other.…read more


Donan LA Holness

Issa good one 


i know right



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