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Importance as a solvent in transport:
Have an uneven charge distribution, as the O molecule is -
and the H is + (Dipolar).
This means ionic substances (e.g. salt) dissolve easily as
the ions are separated due to the polar nature of water.
Hydrogen bonds form between the two…

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Starch and Glycogen
STARCH-Starch is the main energy storage material in plants. It is
made up of a mixture of two molecules, amylose and amylopectin:
Amylose- a long, unbrached chain of glucose joined together by 1-4
glycosidic bonds. The angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coiled
structure. This…

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Circulatory Systems 1
Unicellular Organisms:
Substances and materials such as glucose and oxygen diffuse
directly into the cell. The diffusion rate is quick because of the
short distance the substances have to travel.
Multicellular Organisms:
Diffusion would be too slow to move substances round the larger
bodies of multicellular organisms…

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Cardiac Cycle
ATRIAL SYSTOLE Pressure in the atria increases as they fill with
blood. Increased pressure opens the atrioventricular valves allowing
blood to enter the ventricles. The atria contracts to force remaining blood
into the ventricles.
VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE Ventricles contract from the base up,
increasing the pressure and closing the…

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2. Transfer one daphnia onto a cavity slide and place the slide under a
3. Place a small drop of caffeine solution onto the daphnia.
4. Count the number of heartbeats in 10 seconds and multiply by six to
get bpm.
5. Repeat the experiment using a different concentration.…

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4. The narrowing of the artery leads to high blood pressure, which
means it is more likely for more plaques to form
Risk Factors of CVD

Tendency to high blood pressure and poor cholesterol metabolism
Arteries that are more easily damaged
Mutations in genes that affect relative HDL:LDL levels…

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Plant Statins lowers cholesterol level in the blood by reducing the
amount of cholesterol absorbed from the gut. A lower blood cholesterol
level reduces atheroma formation. Risks: they can reduce the absorption
of some vitamins from the gut.

Anticoagulants Reduces the formation of blood clots. These drugs
include: warfarin, heparin.…

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3. Titrate the vitamin C solution with the DCIPI and gently shake the

4. When the solution goes from blue to colourless, the right volume of
vitamin C has been added.

5. Repeat the experiment twice more, with the same solution and take
an average.

6. Make sure all…

Page 9

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Sample Size the greater the number of people used in a study, the
more reliable the results.

Variables the more variables that have been controlled in a study, the
more reliable the results.

Data Collection the less bias involved in collecting the data, the more
reliable the results.

Controls the…


Donan LA Holness


Issa good one 



i know right




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