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Topic one biology revision notes
Topic 1.1 what is cardiovascular disease?

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD's)- diseases of the heart and circulatory systems

Coronary heart disease (CHD)- one type of CVD

Diffusion- the net movement of molecules or ions from a region of their high concentration to a
region of their low…

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Checkpoint- explain why many animals have a heart and circulation

Checkpoint- relate the structure of the heart to its function

Properties of water to make it an ideal transport medium

Water molecules are unusual among small molecules, because it is liquid at room temperature
where most other small molecules are…

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How does blood move through vessels?

The heart contracts (systole), blood is forced into to the aeries, their elastic walls stretch to
accommodate the blood. During diastole, the elasticity of the walls cause them to recoil behind
the blood. This pushes the blood forward.

When the blood reaches the smaller…

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White blood cells leave the blood vessel, and move to the artery wall. Cells accumulate
chemicals from the blood, particularly cholesterol. A deposit builds up called an atheroma

Calcium salts and fibrous tissues build up at the site, causing plaque formation. Artery wall loses
some of its elasticity and hardens.…


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