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To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 1906-14?
Orthodox church tied peasants to mir- no political opportunities & wants you to obey Tsar
General people had little voice
Strikes allowed in 1905
Trade unions in 1906
The October Manifesto
turned to advice to Count Witte who urged him to agree to fundamental reform
On 30 October the Czar issued the October Manifesto
promised a constitution and a parliament or Duma elected by the people.
The Four Dumas
The First Duma: 1906
promised under the October Manifesto was a cause of great hope for reformers in Russia.
Nicholas II was determined to restrict its powers- Fundamental Law of the Empire that stated
:"The Emperor of All Russia has supreme autocratic power".
restricted with many powers reserved by the Czar.
he had the right to declare war and he appointed ministers who were not responsible to the
Duma. elections were boycotted by the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats.
The Kadets won the most seats.
called for political and economic reform and passed a motion of no confidence in the Czarist
In July frustrated by the actions of the Duma the Czar dissolved it.
Liberals had more share in political process
Tsar needed approval for all laws
Only a stepping stone
SD never satisfied- excluded
Divided in views
3rd duma only wealthy could vote
brought in measures to modernize local government
to improve the courts and the police,
to protect civil liberties
the freedom of the press
end discrimination against Jews
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acted with great ruthlessness against the enemies of the Czar
Martial Law was introduced and courts martial were used to crush opposition.
over 2,500 executions and the hangman's noose became known as Stolypin's neckties
A further 60,000 were imprisoned or exiled.
realised that repression alone would not succeed
introduction of land reform.
He felt that this could make the better-off peasants loyal supporters of the regime.…read more