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Alexander III:

Russia the most economically underdeveloped in Europe
o Mainly based on agriculture
o Difficult to sell enough grain at export to raise money for large-scale industrial
o Needed to improve to maintain position as a Great Power
o Only small areas of industry ­ Ukraine, Moscow &…

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o Oil production & banking were the next largest recipients of foreign funds
o France's input was 33%
o Great Britain 23%
o Germany 20%
o Belgium 14%
o USA 5%

The Counter-Revolution 1906-14 (Stolypin's)

Land reforms to encourage higher production, aimed to encourage Kulaks to become
efficient producers

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o City population decreasing
o Wages less
o Black market grew
o Transport collapsed
Impact on life
o Cheka
o Fuel short ­ no heating
o Sanitary conditions poor
o Black market & bagmen
o Townhouses taken over
o Revolts/strikes
o Mutinies e.g. Kronstadt sailors

New Economic Policy, NEP (1921-29)…

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More appealing to the left0wing than importing grain

Ideological reasons:

Essential if peasants were to embrace socialism

Economic reasons:

Prospect of economic benefits
Greater efficiency meant less people needed to work, releasing manpower for developing
Promised significant increase in production

Economic Success:

By 1941 all farms were collectivised

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Ideological causes:

Socialism was only possible in a highly industrialised nation
Believed revolution should serve working class (wanted workers to prosper)

Political causes:

Inspired by collectivisation
Want a reputation to surpass that of Lenin
Concerned Russia unable to defend self

The First Five-Year Plan: (1928-32)

Aims: heavy industry



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Defence spending rose


Little cooperation between different branches of industry
Factory managers hoard resources
Poor coordination
Fear lead to lying
Shortages of essential items
1931 Govt outlawed private production of shoes
Housing & amenities failed to improve
Social inequalities

The Third Five-Year Plan: (1938-41)

Aims: heavy industry, rearmament &…


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