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Alexander III:

Russia the most economically underdeveloped in Europe
o Mainly based on agriculture
o Difficult to sell enough grain at export to raise money for large-scale industrial
development
o Needed to improve to maintain position as a Great Power
o Only small areas of industry ­ Ukraine, Moscow &…

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o Oil production & banking were the next largest recipients of foreign funds
o France's input was 33%
o Great Britain 23%
o Germany 20%
o Belgium 14%
o USA 5%

The Counter-Revolution 1906-14 (Stolypin's)

Land reforms to encourage higher production, aimed to encourage Kulaks to become
efficient producers
o…

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o City population decreasing
o Wages less
o Black market grew
o Transport collapsed
Impact on life
o Cheka
o Fuel short ­ no heating
o Sanitary conditions poor
o Black market & bagmen
o Townhouses taken over
o Revolts/strikes
o Mutinies e.g. Kronstadt sailors

New Economic Policy, NEP (1921-29)…

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More appealing to the left0wing than importing grain

Ideological reasons:

Essential if peasants were to embrace socialism

Economic reasons:

Prospect of economic benefits
Greater efficiency meant less people needed to work, releasing manpower for developing
industry
Promised significant increase in production

Economic Success:

By 1941 all farms were collectivised
The…

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Ideological causes:

Socialism was only possible in a highly industrialised nation
Believed revolution should serve working class (wanted workers to prosper)

Political causes:

Inspired by collectivisation
Want a reputation to surpass that of Lenin
Concerned Russia unable to defend self

The First Five-Year Plan: (1928-32)

Aims: heavy industry

Success:

Economy…

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Defence spending rose

Failures:

Little cooperation between different branches of industry
Factory managers hoard resources
Poor coordination
Fear lead to lying
Shortages of essential items
1931 Govt outlawed private production of shoes
Housing & amenities failed to improve
Social inequalities

The Third Five-Year Plan: (1938-41)

Aims: heavy industry, rearmament &…

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