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AS History
Britain 1895-1918





































REVISION BOOKLET







How isolated was Britain in 1902?
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Page 2

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Lord Salisbury's foreign policy
The Boer War 1899-1902
China and Japan

Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
Ententes with France and Russia
Deterioration of relations with Germany
Morocco
The Balkans
The 1914 crisis and the invasion of Belgium

Why did the Conservatives lose the 1906 Election?
Joseph Chamberlain and…

Page 3

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How isolated was Britain in 1902?
Lord Salisbury's foreign policy






Between 1886 and 1892 Salisbury strengthened links with the Triple
Alliance
Signed secret Mediterranean Treaties with Italy and Austria in 1887 to
work together in Africa and Balkans
Refused a treaty with Germany, but did swap Helgoland for Zanzibar
Increased…

Page 4

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How isolated was Britain in 1902?
The Boer War 1899-1902

The Boer War was fought in south Africa against the Dutch settlers of
the Transvaal and Orange Free State
After initial successes, there was a fear of a humiliating defeat
The Boers were defeated by a large British army in…

Page 5

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How isolated was Britain in 1902?
China and Japan

The European powers disagreed how to tackle the problem of China
Britain had a good foothold in China, and wanted free trade rather than
seizing more territory
Germany wanted to build an empire, and took over areas of land
Russia wanted…

Page 6

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
Ententes with France and Russia






The Anglo-French Entente (or Entente Cordial) was signed in 1904:
Britain controlled Egypt
France controlled Morocco
Anglo-French tension was reduced, it had been high since the Fashoda
incident
The Entente was the first step of Britain and France…

Page 7

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His inconsistent approach led Lord Landsdowne and Sir Edward Grey to
view Germany with distrust

Both Britain and Germany expanded their sea power in the naval race
Britain had previously pursued a two-power standard
Fisher was responsible for building the British fleet, and Tirpitz for the
German
The Dreadnought made…

Page 8

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
Morocco

In Tangier in 1905, the Kaiser demanded that Morocco should become
independent from France
Germany wanted to increase her own territory and influence in Africa
At an international convention, Britain persuaded all the delegates except
Austria to back France
Germany was humiliated,…

Page 9

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
The Balkans

A revolution in Turkey in 1908 led to a number of risings in the
Turkish-dominated Balkans
Britain tried to arrange a conference, but this was rejected
Austria (backed by Germany) annexed Bosnia
Russia tried to support Serbia's claim to unite Serbia…

Page 10

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
The 1914 crisis and the invasion of Belgium

After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and the Austrian ultimatum,
the Cabinet was divided into three groups:
Asquith, Grey and Churchill backed war to support France
Morley and Burns wanted to remain neutral
Lloyd George…

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