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Lord Salisbury's foreign policy
The Boer War 1899-1902
China and Japan
Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
Ententes with France and Russia
Deterioration of relations with Germany
Morocco
The Balkans
The 1914 crisis and the invasion of Belgium
Why did the Conservatives lose the 1906 Election?
Joseph Chamberlain and Tariff Reform
Loss of working class support
Loss of Nonconformist support
Liberal unity
Why was a separate Labour party set up in 1906?
Growth of the working classes
Failure of trade unionism
Liberal mistakes
How…read more

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How isolated was Britain in 1902?
Lord Salisbury's foreign policy
Between 1886 and 1892 Salisbury strengthened links with the Triple
Alliance
Signed secret Mediterranean Treaties with Italy and Austria in 1887 to
work together in Africa and Balkans
Refused a treaty with Germany, but did swap Helgoland for Zanzibar
Increased naval building programme
Between 1895 and 1902 acted with caution to ensure that Britain did
not become dragged into conflict
Allowed USA to dominate in America over Panama Canal and Venezuela
He refused to develop…read more

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How isolated was Britain in 1902?
The Boer War 1899-1902
The Boer War was fought in south Africa against the Dutch settlers of
the Transvaal and Orange Free State
After initial successes, there was a fear of a humiliating defeat
The Boers were defeated by a large British army in 1900
The Boers turned to guerrilla tactics and disrupted British running of
Cape Colony
The British defeated the guerrilla warfare by being aggressive and
destructive
Women and children were interred in concentration camps where 20,000…read more

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How isolated was Britain in 1902?
China and Japan
The European powers disagreed how to tackle the problem of China
Britain had a good foothold in China, and wanted free trade rather than
seizing more territory
Germany wanted to build an empire, and took over areas of land
Russia wanted to take over land as well, and pressed into Manchuria
The Boxer Rising of 1900 saw the Chinese fight against foreigners
This meant that the European powers concentrated against the native
Chinese rather than fighting…read more

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
Ententes with France and Russia
The Anglo-French Entente (or Entente Cordial) was signed in 1904:
Britain controlled Egypt
France controlled Morocco
Anglo-French tension was reduced, it had been high since the Fashoda
incident
The Entente was the first step of Britain and France developing a closer
relationship
The Anglo-Russian Entente was signed in 1907:
Russia agreed to leave Afghanistan to Britain
Both countries left Tibet alone
Persia was carved into three and split between Russia, Britain and a…read more

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His inconsistent approach led Lord Landsdowne and Sir Edward Grey to
view Germany with distrust
Both Britain and Germany expanded their sea power in the naval race
Britain had previously pursued a two-power standard
Fisher was responsible for building the British fleet, and Tirpitz for the
German
The Dreadnought made other ships obsolete and the naval race
effectively began again from scratch
In 1909 the British public demanded the Liberal government build eight
battleships rather than four
Attempts to agree to limit ship building in…read more

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
Morocco
In Tangier in 1905, the Kaiser demanded that Morocco should become
independent from France
Germany wanted to increase her own territory and influence in Africa
At an international convention, Britain persuaded all the delegates except
Austria to back France
Germany was humiliated, although the crisis was of her own making
The Germans sent a gunboat to Agadir in 1911
It was a result of French troops being sent to Morocco to deal with
unrest
Britain again brokered…read more

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
The Balkans
A revolution in Turkey in 1908 led to a number of risings in the
Turkish-dominated Balkans
Britain tried to arrange a conference, but this was rejected
Austria (backed by Germany) annexed Bosnia
Russia tried to support Serbia's claim to unite Serbia and Bosnia
Russia was forced to back down
1908 was a success for Austria
An Italian attack on Turkish Tripolitania in Africa in 1911 incited more
risings in the Balkans
Britain successfully organised a conference…read more

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Why did Britain declare war in 1914?
The 1914 crisis and the invasion of Belgium
After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and the Austrian ultimatum,
the Cabinet was divided into three groups:
Asquith, Grey and Churchill backed war to support France
Morley and Burns wanted to remain neutral
Lloyd George and others were undecided
Anti-German feeling was the main reason to declare war
After Haldane's discussions with France, if Britain were to stand aside
Germany would be likely to win
A victorious Germany would threaten…read more

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