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The effects of video games and computers
Possible question: discuss research into the effects of videogames/computers
on young people' (9+16 marks)
A01-Research into video games and aggression A02/A03-research into video games and
Experimental studies -ve. Aggression cannot be measured directly, as
Experimental studies in the lab have demonstrated short this is not permitted due to ethical issues.
term increases in levels of psychological arousal, hostile +ve. instead Participants blast each other with high
feelings and aggressive behaviour following sessions of levels of white noise, this is a random multi
violent game play compared to sessions of non violent frequency sound.
+ve. Anderson and Dill found that participants
Arousal tends to tends to be measured by blood blasted their opponents with white noise for
pressure and heart rate and hostile feelings by self longer and rated themselves higher on the 'state
report measures such as the 'state hostility scale'. hostility scale' after playing a violent video game
compared to those who played a slow paced
Anderson and Dill found that participants blasted their puzzle game.
opponents with white noise for longer after playing a
violent video game compared to those who played a +ve. major strength. the causal relationships
slow paced puzzle game. between exposure to violent game play and
subsequent aggressive behaviour can be
-ve. such studies only used to measure short term
Correlational studies effects.
Correlational studies use surveys that identify patterns
of video games use and of aggressive feelings and
behav. +ve. strength. correlational studies overcome the
Gentile et al. found that the time spent playing violent primary weakness of experimental studies because
computer games was associated with aggressive they use a range of 'real world' measures of
feelings, arguments with teachers and a greater aggression.
incidence of fights. +ve. they can relate exposure to violent media to
subsequent real life aggressive behaviour.
Children with low levels of trait hostility who spent more +ve. can be used as a long term effects of video
time playing violent video games were more likely to get game play rather than short term effects observed
into physical fights than were high trait hostility children in labs.
who played less violent video games.
-ve. major weakness. no cause and effect
relationship causality cannot be determined, this
problem is addressed by the 'bi-directional model'
Longitudinal studies +ve. strengths. Longitudinal studies allows
Longitudinal studies, where a group of individuals are researchers to overcome the shortcomings of both
followed over time after exposure to a particular experimental and correlational studies.
stimulus. +ve. by studying the same ppl over the same period
Anderson et al. found children who had high exposure to of time. allows researchers to observe to observe
violent video games over the year became more patterns of behaviour and document both short
aggressive and less prosocial over the year. and long term effects.
This study indicates a repeated exposure to violent
video games does not only increase aggressive -ve. major problem. Participants may be exposed
behaviour, it increases prosocial behaviours. to other forms of media violence e.g. TV, during the
course of study, effect of video game exposure
alone is uncertain.
Jumela Begum 13LEB
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Meta analyses. Publication bias?
Meta analyses allow researchers to compare results -Publication bias occurs when articles with positive
across many different studies to establish an average results are selected for publication in greater
`effect size' proportion than those which report negative
Meta analyses have found a link between violent games
and aggressive behaviour. -As a result published research may provide a
The association holds for both children and adults.. biased view of all studies actually carried out.…read more
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Jumela Begum 13LEB…read more