PSYA4: Media Essay Cheat Sheets

Every question for media PSYA4 already planned with A01 AO2 and IDA's seperated.

Not my resource (found them online) credit due to whoever because this is FAB, helps get every essay and possible questions out of the way. 

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Topic: Outline (AO1) +/- Research (AO2/3) Evaluations (AO2/3)
(IDA not compulsory but feel free to use it!)
Explanations of media Social Learning Theory (SLT): A part of + Rushton (1975) ­ children It is difficult to conduct research into the
influence on pro-social the behavioural approach, SLT believes effects of media ­ much of it can be criticised
demonstrate pro-social behaviour and
behaviour. that pro-social behaviour is a result of the for being unscientific, lacking in population
observation and imitation of a role model attitudes after watching pro-social validity or containing western bias.
in the media who is displaying the positive television but this is only short lived (up to
behaviour. Four processes need to be three weeks). Research such as Bandura et al's manipulated
present in order for SL to occur ­ + Rosenkoetter (1999) ­ children ages a number of different variables (violence,
attention, retention, reproduction and 5, 7 and 9 watched a sitcom (Full House or gender) which increases its validity and
motivation. The observer needs to have a therefore support for the SLT.
the Cosby Show). Found that a third of the
level of self-efficacy (self-confidence) in
their ability to replicate the behaviour. younger children grasped the moral story.
All research done in Western cultures ­
Also found a positive correlation between
western bias a big issue here.
Parental Mediation: Talking to a child amount of sitcoms watched and pro-social
about what they have seen and behaviour (reported by parents). Studies into the effects of the media are
reinforcing the message helps increase the + Fogel (2007) ­ 8-12 year olds in short-term; none of them identify the positive
usefulness of the message put forward by California watched an episode of hang effects of the media in the long-term and so
the media. Children DO absorb messages only give us a small insight into how the media
time, one with and one without parental
put across by the media but these are affects behaviour.
believed to be short-lasting UNLESS mediation. Parental mediation helps the
parental mediation occurs. By talking pro-social message to be reinforced but in
Research shows a positive correlation ­
through the message, the child develops order for parental mediation to happen
but this does not necessarily show cause and
scripts which can then be used in similar properly parents need to discuss the effect. Other variables are likely to influence
situations (see cognitive priming below). messages with the child. levels of pro-social behaviour shown.
+ Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961).
Cognitive Priming: Watching pro-social
Children in the non-aggressive condition of
behaviour leads people to store memories
the Bobo Doll experiment replicated the
or scripts of positive acts. These scripts are
non-violent behaviours of the role model
then retrieved and activated in real-life
and overall displayed less violence. Shows
when a similar situation occurs.
that social learning may be key to displays
of aggression.

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Whilst research into the effects of the media on
Explanations of media Cognitive Priming Support: anti-social behaviour are quite damming, they
influence on anti-social Huesmann et al. (2003) ­ once aggressive are in no way conclusive. Research may a
behaviour. Cognitive Priming: Watching violence scripts have been learnt, they are used to positive correlation between the watching of
leads people to store memories or scripts define situations and guide how to behave anti-social material and similar behaviours ­
of violent acts.…read more

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Boys showed more aggression if
the role model was male and showed a
little more aggression in general than girls
who observed either a same or opposite
sex role model.
The positive effects of Increased pro-social behaviour and Osswald (2010) found that participants Testing the direct positive effects of computers
videos and computer social commitment: who played a pro-social game displayed and video games are very difficult to do ­ it is
games on behaviour.…read more

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Those who had interacted with their FB
page gave much more positive feedback
about themselves than the other two
The negative effects of Desensitisation: Research is often carried out in a lab which
videos and computer Video and computer games have become reduces the influence of extraneous
+ Carnagey et al. (2007) examined the
games on behaviour. more and more realistic, allowing players variables and helps increase validity and
effect of playing violence computer games reliability.…read more

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The Hovland-Yale Model Hovland et al. (1953). Message Support: The model has been supported by many
and how it explains the Putwain and Symes (2011) investigated experimental studies and has dominated the
persuasive effects of the whether classroom fear appeals (relating topic of media persuasion for over 30 years.
Hovland-Yale Model (ACRA) ­
media. to the timing of an upcoming examination)
Attention, Comprehension, Reaction influenced examination performance It makes clear predictions and is easy to test
and Attitude Change.…read more

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Those with higher NC were cognitive misers).
cognition/to think about the topic at and, more influenced by the fact-based
uses minimum thought, attitude change is message (i.e. the central route), whereas ELM takes account of individual differences by
participants with low NC were more considering the need for cognition which
likely to be temporary.)
influenced by the emotion-based message varies from person to person (NC).
(the peripheral route).…read more

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Repetition ­ Tellis (1987) ­ adverts
Dazz washing powder whilst in the middle should be repeated several times a week.
of a scene. Adverts could also be split into parts during
advert break to make them more
Repetition ­ simple and vital! The more memorable or to build up repetition faster.
something is repeated, the more it gets Zajonc (1968) ­ familiarity is increased
under our skin. Go Compare! the more something is seen ­ also known
as the exposure effect.…read more

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Research into intense We measure attraction to celebrities using Research helps to explain why stalking Definite western bias in research ­ celebrity
fandom (celebrity worship the CAS Scale (McCutcheon, 2002). The happens ­ e.g. due to low is a largely western concept but this is
and stalking) last level of the scale ­ Borderline self-esteem/anxiety/depression. Intensely becoming more influential in non-western
Pathological ­ indicates someone who can following a celebrity gives the person an countries.…read more

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Dutton et al.'s
(1994) finding that individuals with
preoccupied and fearful attachments were
more likely to show jealousy, following
and surveillance behaviour.…read more



This is amazing, thank you for uploading this!


You're welcome :) 


do you have any for the other topics?


Where did you find these? :)


lord jesus, i love u 

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