Effects of Media on Behaviour PSYA4

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A01- Media influence on Pro-Social behaviour

Explanations for media influences

  • Equivalent number of prosocal and antisocial acts on childrens TV.
  • Prosocial TV reflects pro-social norms - prosocial behaviours more likely to be reinforced.
  • Younger children less able to understand prosocial messages on TV.
  • Effective parental mediation - discussing programmes with child.

Research Studies

  • Mares meta-analysis - children exposed to prosocial content:
    • Behaved more altruistically
    • Showed higher levels of social control in own behaviour
    • Prosocial effects from other forms of media e.e childrens stories
    • Acted more positicley towards eachother
    • Became less stereotyped in attitudes and beliefs
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AO2- Evaluation

  • TV for preschool children contained few prosocial lessons.
  • Prosocial depictions more effective when concrete than abstract
  • Post-viewing discussion may enhance pro-social norms but it does not always work
  • Strongest effects for pre-school children, weakest for adolescents.
  • 'Instructive mediation' effective 'social viewing' ineffective.
  • Mixing pro-social and anti-social messages reduces effectiveness of the prosocial message
  • Zimmerman did the study of the baby einstein DVDs which may lead to poorer outcomes.
  • Real World Application- seasame street is more effective for children of higher socioeconomic class, possibly due to parental mediation effects.
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A03- IDAs

  • Cultural differences- there has been limited research into the effects of media in other cultures and societies because TV shows and positive messages may change from culture to culture.
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A01- Media influence on Anti-Social Behaviour

Observational Learning

  • Children observe actions of models and may loater imitate them.
  • People are more likely to be imitated if perceived as real.

Cognitive Priming

  • Activation of exsisting aggressive thoughts and feelings.
  • Frequent exposure leads to stored scripts for violent behaviour.

Desensitisation

  • Media violence desensitises children to its effects.
  • Media violence represents violent behaviour as normal or a positive thing.

Lowered Physiological Arousal

  • Heavy TV violence viewers- lower arousal levels to scenes of violence
  • Dont react in normal way to violence and less inhibited about using it.
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A01- Media influence on Anti-Social Behaviour (con

Justification

  • Violent TV may justify what is acceptable behaiour.
  • Unpunished TV violence decreases concerns about own behaviour
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A02- Evaluation

Observational Learning

  • Bandura found artificial situation, little evidence of real-world 'copy cat' violence.
  • St Helena found no increase in aggression after introduction of TV.

Cognitive Priming

  • Josephson found that walkie-talkie acted as a cue for aggression.

Desensitisation

  • Cumberbatch found that the fact that children get used to on screen violence does not mean they get used to real-life violence.

Lowered Physiological Arousal

  • Excitation-transfer- violence creates readiness to aggress.
  • Catharsis found that watching violence causes release of emotions.
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A02- Evaluation (cont)

Justification

  • Negative effects of exposure to violent characters on TV suppoer justification model.
  • Belson found an unpredictable link between violent TV and aggression. 
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A03- IDAs

  • Problem of demand characteristics in studies and ethical issues which makes aggression more likely.
  • Gender Bias- the media used is mainly concentrated on males and their aggressiveness from media and therefore cant be generalised to females.
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A01- effects of Computer and Video games

Negative effects of Game play

  • Increases in aggression when hearing a white noise then playing a video game.
  • Longtitude studies showed high exposure to violent video games the more aggressive the person becomes.

Negative effects of Computers

  • Charles found that anxiety is linked to their use of social networking sights.
  • Karpinski found there was a link between lower grades among students and facebook use.

Positive effects of Game Play

  • Those who play multi-player games, social issues game (sims) or social commitment games (Halo) have better social skills
  • Playing prosocial games and increase helping behaviour

Positive effects of Computers

  • Facebook walls can help boost self esteem
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A02- Evaluation

Negative effects of Game Play

  • Researchers cannot measure 'real-life' aggression.
  • Longitudinal studies -pps exposed to other forms of media, could have contributed to agg.
  • 'Bi-directional model'- explains link between game play and aggression.

Negative effects of Computers

  • Karpinski's study doesnt indicate causal relationship.
  • Greenfield- Facebook infantilises the brain.
  • Link between facebook use and stress supported in real like study.

Positive effect of Game Play

  • Video game companies less likely to develop altruistic games as they are less likely to sell.
  • Methodological limitations of surveys.
  • Theraputic applications of video games e.g Virtual Irap and Tetris.

Positive effects of Computers

  • Hyperpersonal model explains relationship between FB and positive self esteem
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A03- IDAs

  • Real World Application- Playing tetris can reduce memory flashbacks after traumatic events
  • Cultural Bias- only looking at the impact the video games have had on western communities and have shown no comparison to non-western communities.
  • Gender Bias- only lookinga t the way males act and due to larger amount of testosterone they may be more inclined to be aggressive anyway
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