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Problems/threats faced by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, October 1917:
1. The War/The Economy:
The war was deeply unpopular and caused inflation and foot shortages. The army was fighting
at the front and disintegrating when the Bolsheviks needed it to crush their opposition, instead
of fighting the Germans
2. Peasant unrest/The…

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1918-19121 was a harsh but efficient way of managing the economy in order to win the
Civil war.
It included:

Grain requisitioning ­ officers took grain by
force from the peasants and would execute any
who resisted

Ban on private trade ­ private trade was banned
and privately owned shops…

Page 3

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Control of transport and banking ­ the state
took control ­ industry organised into trusts and
had to follow budgets (if budgets were not
followed, there would be no state bailout)

Impact of the system:
Industrial production made a rapid Created a get-rich-quick
recovery society
From 1920-1923, factory output rose…

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The Bolsheviks held the industrialised areas during the Civil War: used factories and railways
to make weaponry and transport it around
Lack of support
The Bolsheviks' opponents were not supported by the population, especially during the
Civil War

(e.g. ­ The peasants had no wish to fight for the Whites,…

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Slave labour

Why did Lenin introduce the NEP?




Introduced at the Tenth Party Congress as a temporary measure.
Bolsheviks accepted it, but disliked it
The Left-Wing of the party particularly disliked the NEP (Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky)

Reasons why Left-Wing Bolsheviks hated the NEP:

Page 6

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Lenin worried that the NEP would cause a split in the party. If this happened, the Bolsheviks might
lose their grip on power.
To prevent this, he introduced a ban on factions at the Tenth Party Congress 1921: "the penalty
got forming a faction is expulsion from the party"

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