Tanzania

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Tanzania
Background
Tanzania is a country in east Africa.
Tanzania borders Kenya and Uganda in
the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the
democratic republic of Congo to the
north west, Zambia to the south west,
Malawi and Mozambique to the south and
Indian ocean to the east.
Tanzania was a German colony from
1886 until the end of the First World
War. Then it was a British colony until
its independence in 1961.
Tanzania has been spared the internal
strife that has blighted many African
states, remaining stable throughout the
late 20th and the 21st century. However,
the country remains of the poorest in the
world with many of the population living
below the World Bank poverty line. In
recent years Tanzania has had some
success at wooing investors and donors.
Tanzania assumed its present form in 1964 after a merger between the mainland Tanganyika and
the island of Zanzibar which had become independent the previous year.
Unlike many African countries, whose potential wealth contradicts their actual poverty, Tanzania
has few exportable minerals and a primitive agricultural system. In an attempt to remedy this,
Tanzania's first president, Julius Nyerere, issued the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which called for
self-reliance through the creation of cooperative farm villages and the nationalisation of factories,
plantations, banks and private companies. However, a decade later, despite financial and technical
aid from the World Bank and sympathetic countries, this programme had completely failed due to
inefficiency, corruption, resistance from peasants and the rise in the price of imported petroleum.
Tanzania's economic woes were compounded in 1979 and 1981 by a costly military intervention to
overthrow President Idi Amin of Uganda. After Mr Nyerere's resignation in 1985, his successor,
Ali Hassan Mwinyi, attempted to raise productivity and attract foreign investment and loans by
dismantling government control of the economy. This policy continued under Benjamin Mkapa, who
was elected president in 1995. The economy continues to grow, though at the price of painful
fiscal reforms.
Facts
The official capital is Dodoma but Dar es Salaam is
the commercial capital and the largest city, with
3.207 million inhabitants in 2009. Dar es Salaam has
an estimated population growth rate of 8%. One of
the highest in Africa. The city's population has risen
exponentially in 1978 there were only 850,000

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The rise in population has put a strain on
infrastructure. Currently only around 2.5% of the city is covered by roads.
Tanzania has an area of 945,087 square km, (364,960 square miles). It is the 31st largest
country in the world.
The climate of Tanzania is tropical along the coast but temperate in the highlands.
Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa.
Major languages and English and Swahili.
Main religions are Christianity and Islam.
In June 2012, 5.…read more

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GDP per capita (PPP) (2013) $1,700
(2012) $1,600
Life expectancy 58 men
60 women
GNI per capita (world bank 2011) $540
GNI per capita (PPP) (1990) 834
(2011) 1,328
Freshwater per capita (2002 CIA world fact book) 144.7 cubic metres
a year
Water withdrawal CIA world fact book 2.74cukm/g
10% used for domestic purposes
89% used for agriculture
Median age (2014) 17.4 years
Age structure (2014)
0-14 44.6%
15-24 19.5%
25-54 29.5%
55-64 2.9%
65+ 2.9%
Dependency ratio 92.5%
Youth dependency ratio 86.…read more

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Government spending (% of GDP) (1990) 17.8%
(2010) 18.2%
Economy
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income. However, it has
achieved high economic growth rates based on gold production and tourism.
Annual growth rate has averaged 6.7% since 2006, one of the best in sub-Sahara Africa. Gold
earnings have been rising.…read more

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Power supplies are erratic and fall short of demand. The find of a major offshore gas field is
promising and could provide investment, income and development for Tanzania.
Tourism
Tourism is an important revenue earner; Tanzania's attractions include Africa's highest mountain,
Kilimanjaro, and wildlife-rich national parks such as the Serengeti.
Agriculture
In 2011 12.5% of land was being used for agricultural purposes. Agriculture accounts for more
than ¼ of GDP and provides 85% of exports.…read more

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Environmental threats
Tanzania has become a target for poachers, and conservationists have warned that the current rate
at which elephants are being killed for their ivory the entire population could die out by the end of
the decade.
Tanzania has plans to build a huge road network, however people are worried about its impacts on
wildlife reserves such as the Serengeti.
Refugees
Tanzania hosts thousands of refugees from conflict in the neighbouring Great Lakes region.…read more

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Internal relations
There is tension between Uganda and Tanzania.…read more

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