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Uganda is a landlocked country in east
Africa. Uganda is bordered by South
Sudan to the north, the democratic
republic of Congo to the west, Rwanda
and Tanzania to the south and Kenya to
the east.
Uganda became a British territory in
1890. It became independent in 1962.
Since the late 1980s Uganda has rebuilt
from an abyss of civil war and economic
catastrophe to become a relatively
stable, peaceful and prosperous country.
In the 1970s and 1980s Uganda was
notorious for its human rights abuses,
first during the military dictatorship of
Idi Amin from 1971-79 and then after
the return to power of Milton Obote,
who had been ousted by Amin. During
this time up to half a million people were
killed in state-sponsored violence. The
dictatorial regime of Idi Amin from 1971-79 was responsible for the deaths of 300,000 opponents
and guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton Obote from 1980-85 claimed at around
another 200,000 lives.
When Idi Amin overthrew the government in 1971 there was a long period of violence and civil war.
This increased the demand for weapons. Amin borrowed $1 million to pay for weapons leaving the
country in huge debt. Amin also expelled the wealthy Asian's who had been brought over by the
British Empire at the beginning of the 20th century to build infrastructure such as railways. These
Asian's had often become good business owners, the expulsion of these businesses lead to a
collapse in government tax revenue.
Since becoming president in 1986 Yoweri Museveni has introduced democratic reforms at a steady
pace and been credited with substantially improving human rights, notably by reducing abuses by
the army and the police. Musevini made Uganda into a one party state but multi-party politics was
restored in 2005. The opposition accuses President Museveni of authoritarian tendencies.
This galvanised the opposition, which disputed Mr Museveni's victory in the 2011 presidential
elections and went to organise street protests about the cost of living and political freedoms.
However, EU observers said that had been improvements in the conduct of elections in Uganda
since the 2006 elections. The president has also come under fire for Uganda's military
involvement, along with five other countries, in neighbouring DR Congo's 1998-2003 civil war.
Capital is Kampala. Kampala had a population of 1.535 million in

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The south of Uganda is heavily influenced by Lake Victoria, one of the world's biggest lakes.
Lake Victoria prevents temperatures from varying significantly and moderates precipitation.
Most cities are located in the south.
The area of Uganda is 241,038 square kilometres (93,072 miles). This means that Uganda is
the 81st biggest country in the world, being just slightly smaller than the UK.
Uganda is the second most populous land locked country in the world. Although landlocked,
Uganda contains many large lakes.…read more

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GNI per capita (2011) $1,124
(1990) $517
GNI per capita (PPP) (1990) $517
(2011) $1328
GDP (PPP) (2013) $54.34 billion
(2012) $51.47 billion
(2011) $50.08 billion
GDP growth rate (2013) 5.6%
(2012) 2.8%
(2011) 6.2%
GDP per capita (2013) $1,500
Water withdrawal per capita (2005) 12.31 cubic m/yr
Water withdrawal CIA world fact book (2005)
41% used for domestic purposes
10% used for industry
43% used for agriculture
Age structure (2014)
0-14 48.7%
15-24 21.2%
25-54 25.7%
55-64 2.1%
65+ 2.1%
Dependency ratio 103.…read more

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Debt interest (% of GDP per year ) (1990) 0.8%
(2010 0.1%
Debt as a % of GDP (1990) 61 %
(2010) 18%
Government spending (% of GDP) (1990) 7.5%
(2010) 11.8%
Uganda is vulnerable to changes in the world price of
coffee, its main export earner. Oil discoveries have
boosted prospects. Western-backed economic reforms
produced solid growth and falls in inflation in the
1990s, and the discovery of oil and gas in the west of
the country boosted confidence.…read more

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Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the workforce.
Main agricultural products are; coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava, tapioca, potatoes, corn,
millet, pulses, cut flowers, beef, goat meat, milk and poultry.
Just 13% of farmers in Uganda buy improved seed from formal markets, the rest rely on seeds
saved from previous seasons or trade informally with their neighbours. However, such seeds
produce much lower yields than modern types.…read more

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The country has to be facing an unsustainable debt burden that cannot be addressed
through traditional debt relief mechanisms.
3. The country has developed a poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP) through a broad
based participatory process in the country.
Uganda was the first country to benefit from the HIPC initiative. The Ugandan government had to
demonstrate; good financial management, lack of corruption and ensure that money was being spent
on poverty reduction, health and education.…read more

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Security and the Lord's Resistant Army
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) was forced out of northern Uganda in 2005/06 and has been under
military pressure in border regions in recent years. Until relatively recently, the lives of hundreds
of thousands of people in northern Uganda were blighted by one of Africa's most brutal
rebellions. The LRA are thought to have left thousands dead and millions displaced.…read more

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The colonial boundaries created by Britain grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with
different ideas of how their country should be governed and different cultures. These
differences have been argued to be partially why Uganda has found it so hard to develop. Conflict
between rebel forces, armed gangs, military factions and ethnic groups have disrupted agriculture
and trade increasing the risk of food insecurity and holding back development.…read more

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Climate change
Severe floods affected Uganda in September 2011. Floods are believed to increase in frequency
and magnitude due to climate change in east Africa which could cause problems for development.
The northeast region of Karamoja region has the driest climate and is prone to droughts. The
frequency and magnitudes of droughts could increase in Uganda due to climate change.
Environmental issues
Environmental issues include; drainage of wetlands for agriculture, deforestation, overgrazing,
desertification, soil erosion and poaching.…read more

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Uganda is rated as very corrupt by transparency international.
In 2010 bomb attacks in Kampala killed over 70 people. The attacks were blamed on the
fundamentalist Islamic militant group Al-Shabaab.…read more


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