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From SQA
· Candidates found the following questions
particularly demanding:
· Unit 1: Cell structure in relation to function Other subjects
Photosynthesis, Energy release, Cellular response in each have areas
defense where candidates
· Unit 2: Variation Selection and speciation Adaptation demanding are
· Unit 3: Control of growth Physiological homeostasis areas likely to
and Population dynamics come up in the
from the SQA on
· In general, candidates for the 2008 examination how to do well in
were very well prepared. this exam.
· In Knowledge and Understanding it is essential that
areas of Arrangements that might be seen to be less 2010 exam based
important or infrequently tested are covered in the on 2008 exam.
same depth as other areas.
· The vocabulary and language used in the Also revision
Arrangements, as would be expected, continues to booklet for first
have great importance and to some extent it must unit.
guide the national standard in responses. Questions
requiring candidates to link ideas from different
areas of Arrangements should be practiced
· In Problem Solving, the scaling, labeling and
drawing of graphs continues to require emphasis
especially in the need for completely closed scales
using zero points as appropriate.…read more

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Endoplasmic Reticulum - The endoplasmic
reticulum is a network of sacs that manufactures,
processes, and transports chemical compounds for
use inside and outside of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus - It modifies proteins and fats
built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares
them for export to the outside of the cell.
Lysosomes - The main function of these
microbodies is digestion. Lysosomes break down
cellular waste products and debris from outside
the cell into simple compounds, which are
transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building
Microfilaments - These filaments are primarily
structural in function and are an important
component of the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules - These straight, hollow cylinders,
composed of tubulin protein, are found
throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells
and perform a number of functions.
Mitochondria - In the animal cell, they are the
main power generators, converting oxygen and
nutrients into energy.
Nucleus - The nucleus is a highly specialized
organelle that serves as the information and
administrative center of the cell.
Plasma Membrane - All living cells have a plasma membrane
that encloses their contents. In prokaryotes, the membrane is
the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall.
Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and
protect their contents. These membranes also regulate the
passage of molecules in and out of the cells.
Ribosomes - All living cells contain ribosomes, tiny organelles
composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent
protein. In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of
RNA. In prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA.…read more

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Example answer
The tubing on the left swells up. The high
concentration of sucrose in the tubing (0.5 M),
compared to that of the external solution (0.1 M),
means that osmosis will occur with the movement of
water molecules from the external solution across the
tubing. The tubing stops swelling up when the
pressure inside it is large enough to prevent further
net movement of water molecules. The tubing on the
right shows no change in shape; there is no net
movement of water molecules because the solutions
inside and outside the tubing contain the same
concentration of sucrose.
· Hypotonic Hypertonic
Sugar solution
· Pure water
Scholar exercises completed.…read more

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· Light is absorbed,reflected and transmitted by a leaf.
The photosynthetic pigments from a leaf can be separated by chromatography.
Chlorophyll absorbs light primarily in the blue and red regions of the spectrum of
white light.
Accessory pigments, such as xanthophyll and carotene absorb blue-green light.
The quantity of light absorbed by a pigment at different wavelengths of light can
be represented as a graph called an absorption spectrum; the rate of
photosynthesis that occurs in a plant at different wavelengths of light can be
presented as a graph called an action spectrum.
Chloroplasts possess internal structures called grana which contain photosynthetic
pigments and are the site of the light stage of photosynthesis.
The region between them is called the stroma. It is the site of the carbon fixation
stage of photosynthesis.
The light dependent stage of photosynthesis is called photolysis.
It produces the chemical energy (held as ATP) and hydrogen needed for the
second stage (held as NADPH2).
The second stage consists of a cycle of reactions which brings about the reduction
of carbon dioxide using the ATP and hydrogen from photolysis to form
Photosynthesis is affected by temperature, light intensity and CO2 concentration.
Its rate is therefore limited by whichever one of these factors is in short supply.…read more

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