Studies for Topics in Psychology Unit 3

A table of studies that can be printed off and used as revision cards which can be used to support/critisize essays on topics including gender, aggression and cognitive development.

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Preview of Studies for Topics in Psychology Unit 3

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Aggression ­ Social Learning Theory Gender ­ Hormones
Bandura's bobo doll experiment shows that children Dabbs et al measured salivary testosterone in
who observe models that perform aggressive violent and non-violent criminals. Those with highest
behaviour and are rewarded for it are more likely to levels of testosterone had a history of primarily
repeat that behaviour, highlighting the importance violent crimes whereas those with the lowest levels
of reinforcement for behaviours. However as this had committed only non-violent crimes.
was a laboratory experiment, the study lacks Lindman et al found that young males who behave
ecological validity as it may not to apply to real life aggressively when drunk had higher testosterone
situations and therefore other factors such as levels than those who did not act aggressively.
biological factors may play a better explanation for
aggressive behaviour.
Phillips ­ SLT also applies to adults as he/she found
daily homicide rates almost always increased the
week after a boxing match was played.
Aggression ­ Deindividuation Gender ­ SDN
Mann analysed 12 incidents of suicides reported in Swaab and Fliers looked at the hypothalamus of 13
American newspapers and found that 10/21 reports men and 18 women between 10 and 93 years old
where a crowd had gathered, baiting had occurred. and found that an area called the SDN was a
This tended to happen at night and when the crowd different size in men and women. The volume of the
was a distance away from the victim. However SDN was 2.5x bigger in males. Therefore this
culture bias is present in this evidence as it is only suggests that gender is fixed and determined by the
based on suicides in America and therefore this may size of our hypothalamus as both males and females
only apply to this country which suggests have a difference which is what Swaab and Fliers
deindividuation may not occur to everyone suggests determines are sex and gender.
everywhere.
Gergen - In DRAS, found those in the dark room
hugged the other participants and 89% intentionally
touched others. Anonymity doesn't necessarily lead
to aggression.
Aggression ­ Importation Model Gender ­ Parents as Role Models
Keller and Wang found that prison violence is more Fagot et al compared 27 egalitarian families with 42
likely to occur in facilities that hold the most traditional families and interviewed the parents
troublesome inmates. E.g. they found that prisons when their children were at 18 months old and
holding maximum security inmates had higher levels observed them playing with their toddler. At the age
of assaults on staff by inmates than prisons with low of 4 children were given gender-labelling tasks,
security inmates suggesting that these maximum children in traditional families tended to use gender
security inmates brought in there aggressive labels earlier compared to those in egalitarian
behaviour as this is why they are in prison in the first families showing that the way the parents live has an
place. effect on how they raise their children and how their
DeLisi ­ found in a study of over 800 male inmates, children's gender behaviour occurs.
there was no evidence that gang membership had
any effect on violent within prison.

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Aggression ­ Deprivation Model Gender ­ Media as Role Models
Wilson ­ "Most violent crimes occur in environments Duck "choose role models who are powerful and
that are hot, noise polluted and overcrowded." attractive". Magazines give gender messages to
Nijman ­ increased personal space failed to boys and girls. Boys magazines focus on sport,
decrease the level of violent incidents among popular TV programmes and computer games
patients. In consistent research.…read more

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Aggression ­ Twins Gender ­ Cross Cultural
Christianson ­ concordance analysis of 3586 pairs of Whitting and Edwards looked at 11 non western
twins. 926 of these were registered for criminal societies and found that girls were more
activity. Male MZ twins showed 35% concordance encouraged to spend more time with their mothers
compared to 12% of DZ twins. Female MZ twins ad were more likely to be given domestic and
showed 21% to 8% concordance of DZ twins. Other childcare roles within the household.…read more

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