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Psychology Revision Unit 5 ­ Issues
Gender Bias

Sex = Biological differences between men and women
Gender = The social and psychological consequences of a person's sex.

Types of Gender Bias

1. Androcentrism
Androcentrism is when male behaviour is seen as the norm, often women are judged against that

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"Women have lower self-esteem than men"
"Women do not value the paid work that they do as much as men"
"Women are less self-confident than men"
They are androcentric because the view women as in the `wrong', it reflects male behaviour to be
the norm. Why not the other way…

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Alpha Bias
Alpha bias exaggerates differences between men and women.

Alpha Bias in Psychological Theories

The Socio-biological (Evolutionary) Theory of Mate Selection
According to this theory men are looking for physical features including; young looking, large
breasts, wide hips, symmetrical faces and young in age ­ these features indicate goof…

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Beta Bias
Beta bias minimises the difference between genders.

Beta Bias in Psychological Theories & Studies

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
The Study = Kohlberg developed his theory on the basis of interviews about moral dilemmas
with 72 boys aged between 10 & 16. By analysing the answers participants gave…

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dilemmas they had experienced. She found that women were more care focused and men were
more justice focused in their morality.

Evaluation of Gilligan's Theory
There is still beta bias in Gilligan's theory, as she only used females to develop her stages and
the just applied them to men.


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Gender Bias Concluding Points

Gender bias does still exist ­ much of the research in psychology contains it but things are beginning
to change.

Many psychologists identify themselves as feminist psychologists and attempt to redress the
balance of psychology.

There is great recognition that gender bias exists.


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