Issue, Debates and Approaches on Psychology Past papers

I've done all but [one essay question] IDA on the 3 topics: Relationships, Aggression and Eating behaviour.

Issues- gender bias, ethics, animals

Debate- determinism, free will, nature/nurture

Approach: Biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, Behavioural

You should use these in your essays to get the top band marks.

I hope this is useful

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Candice Williams 9.12.12
IDA- Psychology Unit 3 (Relationships, eating and aggression) 25 mark
Specimen paper
Relationships: Outline one or more theories relating to the formation and/or
maintenance of relationships (9marks)
Evaluate one of the theories outlined above with particular emphasis on the
nature of relationships in different cultures (16 marks)
1. Cultural bias: The models have developed due to western studies.
2. Sensitive research topic so people may lie about their relationship.
3. Networking; people can now start a relationship over the internet so proximity,
contact may not be an issue
4. Synoptic: world becoming more westernised via globalization
5. Theories are ethnocentric don't take into account arranged marriages and how the
formation of relationship may not be important
1. Difficult to measure relationships scientifically as they rely on self report studies
2. Even those in westernised cultures have more free will, the move from traditional
arranged marriages to joint delegation is shown in Goodwin study of Indian couples
brought up in Leicester.
1. Approach: behavioural, the way you act can affect the costs/rewards of a relationship
Aggression: Outline and evaluate one social psychological and one biological
explanation of human aggression (9+16 marks)
1. Evolution theory hard to test scientifically so it relies on post hoc reasoning: if
behaviour exists today it must have existed previously.
2. Culture bias: the studies of aggression have taken place in western cultures.
3. Gender bias: Deindividuation study by Zimmardo only used female participants;
deprivation study by Jiang only used male prison records.

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Candice Williams 9.12.12
1. Deterministic: if people are in a group they will lose sense of identity which is not
always the case
2. Reductionist, biological approach doesn't take into other factors such as the
institution that people are in that may cause violence
3. Biological approach of aggression can be studied through the use of brain
4. Synoptic: Nature and nurture influences aggression; role of the media and
1. Biological: neurotransmitters/hormones
2.…read more

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Candice Williams 9.12.12
1. Women are now more financially stable so may decide to have partners who are
younger than them.
2. Hard to test scientifically as it relies on self report studies, social desirability
3. Studies are carried out in westernised cultures
1. Parental investment is deterministic: suggest that males and females are
programmed but we have free will
1. Biological: behaviour may be innate as our female ancestors had to choosy to ensure
that their offspring had the best genes.…read more

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Candice Williams 9.12.12
3. Arranged marriages, formation may not be included.
4. Theories developed in western studies
1. Free will
2. Nurture: not based on genetics
1. Behavioural: we choose who to start a relationship with.
Aggression: Discuss evolutionary explanations of human aggression
1. Hard to study scientifically
2. Hard to observe jealous, rely on self report studies
3. Gender bias: study carried out on men
1. Determined by the behaviour of our ancestors
2.…read more

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Candice Williams 9.12.12
Aggression: Discuss the role of neural and/or hormonal mechanisms in
1. Animal studies: hard to generalise to humans
2. Gender bias: most of the studies only use male pps
1. Nature: innate factors cause aggression
2. Reductionist: Only accounts for biological and ignores external factors such as
3. Determined by our genes
1. Biological approach
Eating: Outline one psychological explanations of one eating disorder
3.…read more



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