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Sociology Revision
Topic 1 = Culture and Social Structure

Three main Definitions of Culture
1. High Art: People who enjoy artistic work of agreed quality. E.g. Shakespeare and Van Gogh.

2. Shared Values: People who see similar things as important. E.g. Politics, honesty, justice and

3. Whole Way of…

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Peter Berger Identified the Common Methods
Physical Violence ­ Used by police of in selfdefence. Can also just be used as a threat to make
people to abide by the law
Economic Pressure. E.g. workers that misbehave may be sacked and people who refuse to take
jobs will have their…

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Adler and Adler's Research
Adler and Adler (1998) studied a group of white middle class children in the United States. They found that
peer group was v a very important thing within the lives of these children, Certain members of the individual
groups have more power and influence than others,…

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Marxism ­ Conflict Theory
Karl Marx (1818 1883) argues that it is a capitalist society
A capitalist society generates conflict between the rich ruling class and the exploited
workers. These groups will always be locked in conflict as they have opposing interests.
Formal social control the ruling class use the…

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They believe that instead of dominant or mainstream culture there is a wide diversity of
lifestyles. They believe people choose their own cultural values and lifestyles rather than
simply following the cultural traditions of their society.
Postmodernists believe that a persons identity is also based / determined on choice rather…

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strong and independent, so they show that they are `good' girls
soon learn to hide any signs of rather than `slag's'. She said they
gentleness, kindness and are taught to control and
vulnerability. Emma Renold again discipline their bodies. I.e. they
studies and proves this theory in must act modestly,…

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He started by saying that most British men were socialised into being hegemonic masculine expected
to be financial providers, authority figures, aggressive, risk taking and ambitious, they were not expected to
do any domestic work or show their emotions. He now sees that there are other forms of masculinity.

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Royal weddings and funerals.
The Queens televised Christmas speech.
Bonfire Night

Guibernau and Goldblatt argue that symbols are powerful indicators of national
identity. These might include styles of dress, uniforms, passports, styles of music, national
anthems, and particularly flags. E.g. The Union Jack is a symbol for Britishness.


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Ghuman's Study
Ghuman (1999) outlined some of the socialisation practices of first generation of Asian parents.
Children were brought up to be obedient, loyal to and respectful of their elders and the
community around them. Social conformity was demanded and children learned to be
interdependant rather than individualistic which was…

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Charlotte Butler (1995)
Charlotte Butler studied thirdgeneration of young Muslim women. She found that they choose from a
variety of possible identities. Some choose to reflect their ascribed position through the wearing of
traditional dress, while others may take a more `negotiated' position. This may mean adopting Western
ideas about…


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