Sociology Revision

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Norms
A specific guide to behavior - rules within Values
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Consensus Perspectives
Sees society as positive - everyone is in agreement about how society works
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Conflict Perspectives
Sees society as unequal and negative
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Multiculturalism
Society accepts diversity - we all have the same rights and statuses - allowed to freely practice religions
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Culturally Diverse
People within society see the differences within religion, culture etc but leave people to it and don't embrace it
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Postmodernism
Structure is no longer important - class, gender and ethnicity no longer constrain (stop) us - People are defined by their consumer goods - Our identity is created and we choose our lifestyle through the consumer goods
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Interactionism
Believe there is no structure to society - more concerned with peoples behavior and actions in small groups - small groups make up society - people create their identity through their everyday interactions
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Marxism
Karl Marx (1818-1887) inequality between the w/c and the u/c - worker creates the product but receives a small wage - solution = eventually there will be a revolt/revolution
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Social Control
Anything that directs human behavior i.e sanctions, formal and informl
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Sanctions
Anything which encourages individuals to conform (give into/follow) norms
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Culture
A learned/ shared behavior of members of society
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Status
Someone's position in society, this is often in relation to another person i.e ascribed and achieved status
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Socialisation
The process by which culture is learnt i.e family, media, workplace, peer group, religion and education
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Values
A belief that something is important and worthwhile i.e the value of education, family, friends, music, technology
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Role
Set of norms which defines appropriate behavior for a particular status (rules within your status which create the role)
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Femininity
Passive Femininity - traditional, demur, shy etc Normative Femininity - care about appearance, caring and sensitive Ladettes - (Jackson Ladettes study can go with this) Girls take on laddish behavior Assertive Femininity - Use body to gain power
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Masculinity
Hegemonic Masculinity - macho, sexist, traditional expectations of women Complicit Masculinity - also known as the New Man, helps around the house, cooking cleaning, looking after children Subordinate Masculinity - gay men
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Masculinity continued
Metrosexual Masculinity - concerned with looks, consumer goods Marginalized Masculinity - w/c unable to get work after school - crisis in masculinity decline in the manual labor sector (Mac an Ghaill's study)
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Functionalism
this is a consensus perspective- little groups of people that make up an organisation (Durkheim and Parsons) compare society to human body
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Parsons (functionalist 1950's) (Family)
males + females are socialised by the family into different roles. These roles reflect their natural qualities. men = instrumental role women = expressive role
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Instrumental Role (Family)
Men - Being the breadwinner, providing for the family i.e. hegemonic masculinity
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Expressive Role (Family)
Women- responsible for taking care of the children, the household i.e. cooking and cleaning
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Oakley (Family)
talks about 4 constructions that create gender identity
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Oakley - Manipulation (Family)
Parents encourage and discourage behavior based on whether it is appropriate behavior for that childs sex
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Oakley - Canalisation (Family)
Parents direct childrens behavior through the toys they have and the activities they do for example cooking toys for girls and construction toys for boys
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Oakley - Domestic Activities (Family)
Girls helping to clean the house with the mother and males helping with D.I.Y and engineering
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Oakley - Verbal Appellations (Family)
Parents enforce expectations by referring to their children with stereotypical feminine and masculine descriptions i.e. princess, mate
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Archer (Family)
Muslim boys found their identity was related to their heterosexuality / masculinity. They saw their identity as powerful compared to Muslim girls who were seen as weak and in need of protection. Identities changed depending on where they were
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Mitchell and Green (Family)
W/c women were interviewed and it was said that the mother, daughter bond was strong. Being seen as a good mum was important and part of their femininity
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(Education) Becky Francis
Boys gain status by taking on the class clown role/ laddish behavior. Boys take over the classroom space and dominate conversations within the classroom.
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(Education) Debby Epstein
w/c boys are likely to be subjected to homophobic/ verbal abuse if they appear to be clever/swots and are labelled as sissies as w/c boys are supposed to be seen as tough linked to manual work
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(Education) Hidden Curriculum
The things students are not directly taught for example, time management, meeting deadlines, things that will benefit them outside of the classroom
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(Education) Willis
lads in a school in birmingham found school a place to display their masculinity by rejecting education and becoming rebellious. They developed a masculine subculture as they prepared for the world of work
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(Peer Group) Burdsey
Asian footballers replace their identity with a laddish one in order to fit in with friends whereas at home they follow in their fathers footsteps with a hegemonic masculinity
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(Workplace) Mort
the decline of traditional areas of male employment bought about the 'New Man' Masculinity
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(Workplace) Positions in the Workplace
Men have higher positions in the workplace than women, Theefore they have higher status and economic capital. 2/3rd of managers are men. 90% of senior judges are men.90% of senior police force are men. 87% of national newspaper editors are men.
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(Workplace) Stanko
Masculine dominated work areas/ jobs means that those areas become the mens territory where sexual jokes and talks about sports and sex become a regular thing. They may have pictures of women this makes females feel intimidated and not want the job
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(Media) Metrosexual
heterosexual men concerned with their appearance and lifestyle reflects that of a stereotypical gay man. due to changes in attitude and culture towards masculinity
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(Media) Nixon
see's the rise in the new lad- going back to traditional masculinity's this excludes protecting and caring for the weak (FHM, 2 pints of larger)
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(Media) Ferguson
Looked into women's magazines and found they instruct women how to be feminine she called this the cult of femininity.
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(Media) Gill and Herdieckerhof
media persaudes young women that their body is an important part of their identity. chick flick and chick lit promote ideas that women can be financially independent, have a career but still need to be rescued
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(Religion) Butler
young Asian women want to move beyond the traditional expectations so pursue education and careers but their religion was still important to them.
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(Religion) Patriarchal nature of religion - Giddens
Religion serves the interests of men. Religion is patriarchal as both symbolism and the hierarchy. Woman is portrayed as part of man
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(Religion) Izzat
Family honour ensures that women stick to traditional female roles so they do not bring shame on the family by behaving outside the traditional subordinate female role
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(Class) Neo-Marxism - Bourdieu
class is not always linked to the economy alone it is also linked to culture. Bourdieu identified 3 types of capital that could people process
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(Class) Conspicuous Consumption
buying and showing off goods as a status symbol
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(Class) Lyon
We live in a consumer society which has resulted in the decline of traditional class culture. We can now pick and mix from different styles and different class groups. High culture - art galleries can now be enjoyed by all
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(Class) Objective Definition
Class is measured by occupation - -different categories - class scale
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(Class) Subjective Definition
social class - what people think of themselves - measured by occupation, house type, area, accent and education
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Working Class Identity - Manual Jobs
w/c - physical work - does not require educational qualifications - unskilled, semi - skilled or skilled - fishing, mining industries
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(W/C Identity) Sons Follow Farther's Footsteps
In the past this was encouraged - male role model within families - this is no longer the case as these manual industries have drastically declined
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(W/C Identity) Immediate Gratification
w/c - live for the moment - short term - less likely to save money - when they have money they will spend it almost instantly
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(W/C Identity) Close - knit communities
lived in communities based around the industry - strong ties with family and one another - sense of duty and obligation
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(W/C Identity) Traditional Roles Within The Family
more likely to have traditional gender roles - man = instrumental role - woman = expressive role
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(W/C Identity) Popular culture
enjoyed by the masses - pop music, soaps, T.V, tabloid gossip
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(W/C Identity) Strinati - pop culture
Media is largely responsible for creating pop culture - buying goods is linked to this - young people and consumer goods - materialism
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(W/C Identity) Adorno - Maxist - Pop Culture
pop culture distracts the w/c - preoccupied with trivial issues - become engaged in meaningless shallow activities - attention is diverted from their true concerns
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(W/C Identity) Bourdieu - Cultural Capital
Culture that the m/c possess - seen as desirable - knowledge of classical music, literature and art (high culture) - better education
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(W/C Identity) Social Capital
social connections we make
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(W/C Identity) Economic Capital
less economic capital - linked to the amount of social and cultural capital they possess - low paid jobs
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(M/C Identity) White Collar Jobs
Office jobs
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(M/C Identity) High levels of social mobitlity
more opportunities - social mobility due to education opportunities - able to move up in the class structure
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(M/C Identity) Deferred Gratification
put off present treats and comforts - reap the benefits later
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(M/C Identity) Less traditional roles in the family
both parents are more likely to have m/c jobs - can afford childcare and cleaners
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(M/C Identity) Savage
difference in m/c jobs - private sector and public sector - private sector more likely to have better conditions and pay and therefore enjoy a better lifestyle
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(M/C Identity) Wynne
m/c housing estate residents possessed economic, cultural and social capital -
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(M/C Identity) Devine et al
50 interviews - doctors + teachers - both considered m/c jobs - did not mention social class in the interviews - they did not want to appear arrogant and superior to others or they may not have seen themselves as middle class
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(U/C Identity) Intermarriage
marry within the u/c - social closure - stop others entering into their elite group - increases social capital
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(U/C Identity) social capital
strong connections with those in/with power - attend prestigious universities
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(Class + Family) norms + values
mealtimes - times they eat - what they name them - where they eat
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(Class + Family) Reay
cultural capital is passed on from one generation to the next - middle class mothers can influence their child's education - w/c mothers less likely to question teachers and get involved
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(Class + Family) Cater and Coleman
risk of becoming a teenage parent were 10 times greater for a girl from an unskilled w/c background - norm of settling down
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(Class + Peer Group) Cultural Comfort Zones
Associate with people with a similar social background - share cultural norms and values - like - minded people - friendship groups based around class
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(Class + Peer Group) Brah study on white skinheads
w/c identity was very important for this group of males - constructed a culture of 'whiteness' shared a clear sense of identity and the norms and values linked to their class position
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(Class + Education) Type of school
w/c attend local schools in the area - meet people from the same background this reinforces norms and values learnt at home. m/c parents look at league tables - encourage children to sit entry tests for grammar school
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(Class + Education) Formal Curriculum
private school = latin and other languages which reinforces cultural capital/ high culture public school = vocational courses
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(Class + Education) Hidden Curriculum
things we are not taught directly - teaches class identity
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(Class + Education) Power et al
relationship between m/c, good grades and elite uni's - can be isolating and daunting
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(Class + Media) Representations of the w/c
stereotypical - such as shameless show w/c to be aggressive and assertive and good at playing the social security system
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(Class + Media) Medhurst
group of m/c students watching the royle family believed this was an accurate portrayal of the w/c
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(Class + Media) Super rich
media is used in super rich society to further their own interests
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(Class + Media) Brundson
m/c people saw satelite dishes as tasteless and a symbol of the w/c
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Ethnicity - Modood
number of factors including; culture, desent, shared culture includes; shared language, shared food, religion, tradition and values
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Ethnic Identity
cultural attachment to others and a sense of pride - people can achieve and express to others this can be done through clothes or religion
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Nationality
where you are born
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Hybridity
mixing of cultures - can be shown through different ways, food, chlothing, language, attitudes and norms and values
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Afro Caribbean Families
the children are more likely to live in single parent families - reflection of the past - slaves etc - or women are more idependent and rely on networks of other Afro Caribbean mothers
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Ethnicity + Family - Modood
ethnic identities in the UK were changing - wearing ethnic clothes were less important for young people than their parents. young people were more likely to be upfront and political about their ethnicity
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Ethnicity + Education - Mason
ethnocentric - curriculum based around one ethnicity
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Ethnicity + Education - Johal and Bains
some children wear a metaphorical 'white mask' in order to fit in with the majority culture - can be due to racism or fear of racism
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Ethnicity + Education - Derrington and Kendall
traveller children experiences of school - some where proud of their identity others tried to hide it from their peers and teachers - they seek approval - social desirability
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Ethnicity + Education - Basit
ethnic identities are changeable - Asian girls - identity based on Asian culture ethnicity, language, religion but in a British context
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Ethnicity + Education - Formal Curriculum
Bias towards white culture - focuses on British history, English Literature and emphasises the teaching of christianity
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Ethnicity + Education - Sewell
possible to include other cultures and the national curriculum would allow this - however the emphasis is on slavery, the holocaust etc this merely reinforces stereotypes looking at negative aspects rather than achievements of different ethnic groups
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Ethnicity + Education - Sewell (different study)
black boys refused to go along with racist remarks from teachers - teachers did not believe or understand that some of their teaching practices were rasist
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Ethnicity + Workplace
some work forces are ethnically diverse others are dominated by one ethnic group - some minority groups are more likely to experience unemployment and poverty
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Ethnicity + Workplace - Song
Doctors - over 1/3 of doctors in the NHS are described as Asian
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Ethnicity + Religion - Islamaphobia
events such as 9/11 and th 7/7 have created tensions in communities. The media and the goverment have blown the threat way out of proportion. Many people now fear Muslims and Islam and may target them for racial abuse
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Ethnicity + Media - Gilroy
Black american adopt 'gangsta' fashions and develop hegemonic masculinity as a response to racism. Their styles and fashions have been stolen and sold to white consumers
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Ethnicity + Media - Portrayal of Ethnic minorities
ethnicity is shown as a restriction or not at all particularly by the media who focus on the limitations of an ethnic groups religion
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Age - View 1 - age is still important and still creates identity - Vincent
your status is determined by how far/long you can participate in society - in this way the elderly and the young have a distinct identity
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Age - View 2 - Age divisions are blurring - Blaikie
people's identities are no longer experienced in terms of social class and age - our identity can be based around consumer culture - supermarket of style
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Definition of Age
considered chronologically - refers to particular stages in life at which we have certain statuses or roles
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Old age
dependence, loneliness, ill-health, opportunities and restrictions
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Middle Age
fulfillment, new directions, reflection, money and employment
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Youth
rebellion, restrictions, resistance, learning, experimentation and style
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Laslett
different stages of life - 1st age, period of socialisation - second age, phase of work and child rearing - 3rd age, time of independence
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(Middle Age) Victor
related to people in their forties and fifties
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(Middle Age) Attitude of Mind
meaningless concept - experienced differently by different people - no clear definition of where middle age begins - attitude of mind
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(Middle Age) Distinct period of life
define it as the point in which their children leave home- can be associated with different norms and values
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(Middle Age+ identity)
stereotypical 'mid-life crisis'
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(Middle Age + status) Bradley
have low status - age discrimination - Bradley argues middle age brings with it a higher status than either youth or old age
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(Old Age)
considered 65 and over and links with retirement age
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(Old Age) Clarke and Warren
most respondents see old age as an active time of life
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(Old Age) Victor
stereotyped as a period of loneliness, being unable to learn, having poor health and being dependent on others
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(Old Age) Mckingsly
85 and over = oldest old this suggests there is a young old
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(Youth)
aged between 12 and 25 - identified as being creative and risk orientated
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(Youth) Abrams
All part of the same youth culture - they learn about their path to adulthood during this time of life
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(Youth) Clarke
youth is based around rebellion and resistance - they rebel against their low status in society and rject mainstream norms
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Card 2

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Sees society as positive - everyone is in agreement about how society works

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Consensus Perspectives

Card 3

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Sees society as unequal and negative

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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Society accepts diversity - we all have the same rights and statuses - allowed to freely practice religions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

People within society see the differences within religion, culture etc but leave people to it and don't embrace it

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Preview of the back of card 5
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