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Sociology social policies education
1870 education act
pre 1870 there was no proper education. This act introduced school which thought basic skills.
They thought all up to the age of 10. but these schools were biased to the upper classes.
1944 education act
this was aimed to create equal chance for all. They
system had been divided into primary, secondary and
higher education. This act introduced the tripartite
system which was three schools all designed for
specific skills and abilities. It introduced the the 11+
exams, this was the system used to allocate children to a
certain school. The three schools were grammar,
technical and secondary modern. Grammar schools
were for the most intelligent students. They were
thought subject which would prepare students for
further qualifications. 20% went to theses schools.
Technical schools thought more technical subjects
focused on vocational studies 5% attended this type of
school. Secondary modern schools were more practical and were only given a basic education with
very few opportunities 85% attended these schools.
Criticisms of the tripartite system:
· 11+ exam is too unreliable as you cant accurately measure someone intelligence at 11. as
they are too young and could just have a bad day. It doesn't include children who may be
late developers and wont show their talents till later.
· It may waste peoples potential if assigned to the wrong school.
· People who attended secondary modern were seen as second class citizens
· it manely benefits middle and upper class children
· the idea of intelligence is not easily objectified.
Comprehensive system (1960s)
there was a knew more social democratic
government(labour government) introduced and they
thought that everyone should have an equal chance to
succeed (meritocracy) and this was not being
achieved via the tripartite system. As it was
inefficient policy which wasted talent and didn't
produce a well educated workforce. So instead they
combined all three schools into a comprehensive
system in which all student of all backgrounds and
abilities would mix. Provided with the same
opportunities and training with no entrance exam.
This helped break down class barriers and created
more social harmony.
Criticisms of on the comprehensive system:
· private education still exist it is not fully comprehensive.
· There was still an achievement gap between the middle and working class.
· There is not much class mixing in comprehensive schools as they recruit from their
catchment area so most are either middle class or mostly working class.
· It can be argued to hold back academically stronger students.
· Setting and streaming created inequalities
· and not all schools are equal due to funding as some schools select their students still.
Strengths of the comprehensive system:
· did reduce some inequalities
· gave more opportunities
· pass rates increased
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1979-97 they started creating marketisation and parentocracry (parental choice) and they want the
government the have more control in school. And introduce more vocational studies.
1988 education reform act
in this they introduced many new policies:
· introduced the national curriculum for england and wales.
This helped the government more easily compare schools
and gave them more power. But its might not be suitable
to all types of students e.g. not academically suited.
· They introduced national testing systems e.g. SATs.…read more
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The education action
zones gave money to schools to help improve facilities.
· They introduced tuition fees
· EMA to persuade people to carry on in education after 16.
· academies were introduced to increase diversity. They were more
business like school and got their money from sponsors. They could
teach slightly different criteria. And focused more on preparing
people for work similar to the Marxist ideals of education.
· And created after school homework clubs and maths and literacy
hours to encourage more achievement.…read more