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Sociology revision Education

School factors [Cultural:]

Labelling theory / selffulfilling prophecy
Streaming / Banding / Setting
Class, gender, ethnic background
Formal Curriculum (middle class knowledge)
Hidden curriculum
Antischool subcultures (Male: Willis / Female: Lees)
Language and textbooks (antifemale / black bias)
Gender relationships (teacher pupil / pupilpupil)
Gendered curriculum (patriarchal)…

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4. Althusser(1971) says that the main role of education is to transmit
ISA values( Ruling class or capitalist) disguised as common values
5. Ramsay (1983) claimed that knowledge is being used as a form of
social control and there is a hidden curriculum to keep w/c and ethnic
minorities in…

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3. Material deprivation

Cultural deprivation

Intellectual development
Many w/c homes lack the books, educational toys and activities that
would stimulate a child's intellectual development
Douglas (1964) found that w/c pupils scored lower on tests of ability
than w/c pupils. He argued that this is because w/c parents are less

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Cultural capital

Bourdieu and Passeron (1977) suggested that m/c cultural capital is
as valuable as material wealth. The forms of knowledge, values, ways
of interacting that m/c pupils possess are developed further and
rewarded by the education system.
Bourdieu (1984) argues both cultural and material factors contribute
to educational achievement…

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Overcrowding can make it harder for the child to study. It means less
room for educational activities, nowhere to do homework, disturbed
sleep from sharing beds/bedrooms
Poor, damp housing can affect the child's health making them ill
leading to a low attendance and the child falling behind

Diet and…

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Rist studied at an American kindergarten found that early on in the
children's start in the school they were put into settings. They found
at that the teachers set them according to appearance and family
Cicourel and Kibuse studied decisions of counsellors in a American
high school. Found that…

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The antischool subculture
Lacey found those place in lower streams who tended to be w/c
suffer a loss of self esteem.
This label of failure pushes them to search for alternative ways of
gaining statues. This usually involves inverting the school's values of
hard work, obedience and punctuality.
Such pupils…

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Silt shifting off loading pupils wit learning difficulties that are
expensive to teach and get poor results.

Ethnicity and educational achievement
Intellectual and linguistic skills
Language is a problem, many AC speak a different dialect of English
this may cause problems in schoolwork and communicating with
teachers leading to a…

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Material deprivation and class
Ethnic minorities are more likely to come from a w/c backgrounds this
mean they do not share the m/c class values of the school institution.
African Caribbean on average experience greater poverty (FSM), are more
likely to live in rented accommodation, attend schools that are more…

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many girls now looking forward towards jobs that require degree
level qualification
Feminism, Weiner (1995) has argued that teachers have more
forcefully challenged stereotypes and many sexist images have been
removed from learning material. However Best and Abraham found
that women continue to be presented as passive or in a…


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