Social Influence Booklet for AS AQA A Psychology

Basically a 22 page booklet of the whole of social influence (I think!) for AS AQA A Psychology. It has conformity, obedience and social change. It's a mix of all my teacher's notes, so credit goes to him for making them all, I've just shoved it all together in word and made it pretty. It's colourful and full of pictures because that's what helps me learn and is full of key studies and terms, but you might have learnt different ones, depends on your teacher :) Have fun...

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Social Influence
Conformity- when we adjust our behaviour or opinions to match more closely
with the majority of others. It is implicit rather than explicit. Conformity is a
specific reaction to social influence. When conforming, individuals adopt the
behaviours, attitudes and/or values of a numerically larger group (majority). It
is sometimes known as majority influence.
Autonomous- self rule, independence.
Implicit-implied, suggested you do something.
Explicit- overly directed, told directly, usually a rule/law.
Types of Conformity:
Kelman (1958) proposed three types of conformity:
Compliance- public but not private attitude to change. Individuals fit
with the group but don't necessarily like doing so. Maybe in conflict with
own opinions.
Identification-individuals may wish to adopt the group's attitudes and
beliefs towards a specific role or image-based on what the majority
think is appropriate for such a role.
Internalisation- private and personal acceptance. Individuals not only
take on board attitudes /opinions/behaviours of group but agree with
the reason for doing it and as such change their own attitudes.
Explanations of Conformity:
Festinger (1957) developed his theory of Cognitive Dissonance to explain the
conformity process. Cognitive dissonance means that when we hold two
opposing points of view this leads to anxiety, which we find unpleasant and
difficult to cope with, The easy thing to do is simple get rid of one point of
view and adopt just one, usually one which is shared by others.
Deutsch and Gerard (1995) distinguished between informational social
influence and normative social influence.

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Informational Social Influence: Motivated by desire to be correct. When
a person is in a situation is unsure of the correct way to behave, they will
look for cues from others.
Normative Social Influence: Motivated by the need to fit in with the
group. The influences of others that lead us to conform in order to be
liked and accepted by them.…read more

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Conformity in Research Studies:
Jenness (1932) - Informative Influence (Internalisation); Participants were
shown a glass bottle filled with beans and were told to estimate individually
how many beans were in the bottle. Then they all joined as a group
and estimated together. After this they were asked if they wanted to
change their original individual estimates and almost all changed their
individual guesses to be closer to the group estimate.…read more

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They eventually became submissive making the guards even
more aggressive and assertive. Some prisoners were taken out of the
experiment early, because they were showing signs of depression and
emotional disorders. After six days the experiment was
stopped because some might be physically or mentally
damaged if it carried on. This research showed that people will
readily conform to the social roles they are expected to play,
especially if the roles are as strongly stereotyped as those of
the prison guards.…read more

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Factors that Increase and Decrease Conformity:…read more

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Obedience: When an individual or individuals acts upon a direct request or
order from someone else. It is assumed that without the request or order the
individual would not have acted in that way.…read more

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Doctor
Judges
Guard
Key Quotes:
Stanley Milgram investigated destructive obedience where orders are obeyed
even though the individual understands the negative consequences. He was
particularly interested in what happened in the concentration camps during the
Second World War. At Auschwitz for example, there were up to 12,000 deaths
a day.
During his trial in 1961, Adolf Eichmann claimed that he had only been
following orders. Many other Nazi's who stood trial also gave
the same defence.…read more

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They are rigid in their opinions and
beliefs and have conventional, upholding, traditional values.…read more

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Comments

Alisha

Thanks it's really useful, like you're other one.

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