As AQA Psychology A Social Psychology

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  • Created on: 15-06-13 13:30
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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
TYPES OF CONFORMITY
COMPLIANCE
Individuals conforming to a group while privately disagreeing with
them
Asch investigated whether people would conform in highly unambiguous
situations. Participants looked at a display. They were asked which line, A, B or
C was the same as the stimulus line, and all but one of the participants were
confederates of the experiment. The last participant was the real one.
Most of the time the confederates would give the right answer but on some
`critical' trials were asked to unanimously give the wrong answer.
Performance of participants in the group was compared to a performance in a
control condition in which there were no confederates.
On crucial trials Asch found that 37% of the time participants gave the wrong
answer the same as the confederates had done.
He also found that the conformity effect increased as the number of
confederates went up from one to three but there was no increase between
three and six confederates.
Asch also found that when a supporter of the real participant was put in place,
as only 5% conformed to the majority.
First to point out how strong conformity is in groups
Lab experiment ­ controlled, scientific, replicable
Based on the length of a line ­ task is meaningless so may conform because there are no
consequences
Unethical because deception could cause stress to the participant
Lab based reduces complex social situations to a laboratory environment.

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Participants may have guessed what was happening which would make the findings
unreliable.
IDENTIFICATION
Want to be liked, respected and admired. There is a temporary change in
our private and public views to fit in.
ZIMBADO ­ STAMFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT
Set up a prison in basement. Participants were advertised for in the newspaper
for male students where 24 were selected. They were randomly allocated the
role of prisoner or guard. Guards wore reflective sunglasses and prisoners were
given a small flannel and a number.…read more

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INTERNALISATION
Deepest level of conformity. Group influences your behaviour. There is a
change in your behaviour which is permanent and irreversible. You agree
because you believe they are right.
MOSCOVICI
Groups of 6 participants. They were shown slides of blue with varied intensity.
Two confederates said GREEN on either every trial or on two thirds of these
trials.
8% green responses from the majority when the minority responded in a
consistent way.
1% when minority was inconsistent.…read more

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Clark took 220 psychology students and gave them a four page booklet
summarising the story of 12 Angry Men. This booklet contained evidence for
the defendant's guilt.
He found that a minority juror only let people to change their minds when they
could provide COUNTER-EVIDENCE to the charge.
In another study students were given a three page summary of the jury's
discussion in the film. This contained counter-arguments presented by the
minority juror. Clark showed students scenarios where defectors ranged from
one to six.…read more

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FACTORS INVOLVED IN OBEDIENCE
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
Agentic state
When people obey an authority figure because they feel they are not
responsible for their actions. They cease to act accordingly to their conscience.
MILGRAM
Socially Obedient Environment
Authority figures are legitimate and trustworthy ie, doctor. If they tell you to
do something they will do so without question ie, hospitals and armed forces
HOFLINGS NURSES
Graduated commitment
Starts off as a small step, appears reasonable but gradually escalates in small
steps.…read more

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OBEDIENCE RESEARCH
Milgram
Advertised for 500 new haven middle aged middle class men from certain
walks of life. They were allocated the role of teacher or learner. Participants
were always teachers and learners were confederates of the experiment.
Teachers were asked to shock learners when the wrong answer was given. The
shocks started at 15V and went all the way up to 450V in 15V increments.
When questioned, the experimenter told the participant that the
experimenter held all responsibility and to continue with the experiment.…read more

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Reasonably experimentally valid.
Reasonably ecologically valid as it was not in an office, participants were paid
and it was seen as a real job.
BICKMAN
153 randomly selected pedestrians were approached in Brooklyn, New York,
by someone dressed in either a sports coat and tie, a milkmans uniform, or a
guards uniform and gave them one of three orders.
1) Pick up this bag for me
2) This fellow is overparked at the meter but doesn't have any change.…read more

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HIGH experimental validity ­ measurable, believable
INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR
Explanations:
1) Goes against a deeply held belief
2) Confident
3) Moral reasoning
DISOBEDIENCE RESEARCH
GAMSON
Participants were asked to engage in a discussion which would be videotaped
to collect opinions on moral standards. They were shown a video of a man
named Mr C then asked to discuss their attitudes towards his lifestyle. The
cameras were switched off at various times and participants asked to argue as
if they were offended by Mr C's behaviour.…read more

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LOCUS OF CONTROL
Relates to peoples beliefs about what controls events in their lives
INTERNAL
Your behaviour is the product of yourself and only yourself and you take
responsibility for it
External
Controlled by external factors, eg ­ fate, luck, god, other people…read more

Comments

Hannah

Good help, nice and simplified

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