Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
AQA Psychology B Unit 2
Revision Booklet

By Jack Richardson

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Social Facilitation
Social facilitation is concerned with how and why activity is increased when others are present.
E.G athletes run faster if an audience is watching, and even cockroaches learn to navigate a maze faster if watched by
other roaches.
Coaction effects refer to the presence of others…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
The tasks that the participants perform in studies of social facilitation are often artificial and may lack ecological
Audiences in studies of social facilitation are usually quiet, and therefore may not reflect the nature of audiences or
co-actors in the real world
The evaluation apprehension explanation is not…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
an authority figure. Every teacher went up to 300 volts, and 65% of participants went to the full 450 volts in spite of screams
protestations etc. from the learner.
Factors in Milgram's study
The credibility of the set-up: Perhaps participants were aware that the learner received no electric shock; i.e.…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Validity: This concerns the question, `Is the research measuring what it is supposed to measure?' For example, in the
Milgram study, did people really believe that they were administering electric shocks?

Gregory's indirect theory (1974);
A lot of information reaches the eye, but much is lost by…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Gibson's direct theory:
Changing pattern of light that surrounds the active perceiver that provides us with sufficient information for the
Optic flow: As we move towards a point in out visual environment, objects that are directly in front of us appear
stationary but objects towards the side appear to…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
The Optic Flow pattern for a person looking out of the back of a train.

2. The Role of Invariants in Perception
We rarely see a static view of an object or scene. When we move our head and eyes or walk around our
environment, things move in and out…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
information is plentiful and is available for a suitable length of time. Constructivist theories, like Gregory's, have
typically involved viewing under less than ideal conditions.
Research by Tulving et al manipulated both the clarity of the stimulus input and the impact of the perceptual
context in a word identification task.…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Pattern perception:
Newborn infants: shown preference to face like patterns than non-face patterns. Show greater interest in more
complex images. Brennan et al (1966) shows infants checkerboard patterns of increasing complexity (2 by 2, 4 by
4, and then 24 by 24) 1 month old infants preferred most complex ones.…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Visual constancies:
Shape constancy: Allport and Pettigrew (1957) tested Zulu people in South Africa with the trapezoid window
illusions. Zulu's in rural areas did not have regular windows so was less likely to experience the illusion, indicating
shape constancy has not been learned; this was what they found.
Size constancy:…


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »