Self Made Revision Guide

Revision Guide made for revision of AQA SCLY1 Exam

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AS SOCIOLOGY
UNIT 1 ­ FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS
TEXT BASED NOTES
IN THIS GUIDE
SECTION 1 (COUPLES) .............................................................................................................................. 3
Couples ­ The Domestic division of labour ........................................................................................... 3
Domestic Violence ............................................................................................................................... 3
Feminist Theories ................................................................................................................................ 4
Resources and Decision Making ........................................................................................................... 5
The Impact of Paid Work ...................................................................................................................... 6
Theorists Opinions on Couples ............................................................................................................. 7
SECTION 2 (CHILDHOOD) ......................................................................................................................... 8
Childhood as a SOCIAL CONSTRUCT ..................................................................................................... 8
Has the Position of Children Improved? ............................................................................................... 9
The Future of Childhood .................................................................................................................... 10
SECTION 3 (FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY) ................................................................................................ 12
Marxist Theories ................................................................................................................................ 12
Functionalist Theories of the Family................................................................................................... 13
SECTION 4 (DEMOGRAPHY) ................................................................................................................... 15
Births................................................................................................................................................. 15
Deaths ............................................................................................................................................... 15
Migration........................................................................................................................................... 17
SECTION 5 (CHANGING FAMILY PATTERNS) ............................................................................................ 18
Chainging Patterns and Family Diversity - Divorce .............................................................................. 18
Parenting ........................................................................................................................................... 18
Partnerships ...................................................................................................................................... 19
SECTION 6 (FAMILY DIVERSITY AND THE LIFE COURSE) ........................................................................... 20
Modernism and the Nuclear Family ................................................................................................... 20
Postmodernity and the Life Course .................................................................................................... 20

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SECTION 7 (FAMILIES AND SOCIAL POLICY) ............................................................................................ 23
A Comparative View of Family Policy.................................................................................................. 23
Perspectives on Families and Social Policy ..........................................................................................…read more

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SECTION 1 (COUPLES)
Couples ­ The Domestic division of labour
There are three main parts to the domestic division of labour.
Parsons and the FUNCTIONALIST THEORY
Young and Willmott and the SYMMETRICAL FAMILY
Oakley and FEMINIST THEORY
Tallcot Parsons Functionalist Theory says that there is a clear inequality in the domestic division
of labour.…read more

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Private Sphere or Private Beating
The police say that family is a private sphere. They see the family as good and if a woman has problems
with her situation she can leave.
This may not be the case though because men can hold all the woman's financial status.…read more

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Feminists believe that even though women are now working, there is still inequality in the household
and the family is still very patriarchal.
They say that working women are having to suffer a dual burden.
Lesbian Couples and Gender Scripts
Lesbian couples have been proven to share housework more fairly then heterosexual couples. They take
an interest in each other's careers and also have a positive outlook on childcare.…read more

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Inequality
Research has shown that in low income homes, women will skip meals and spend less money to make
ends meet.
However, according to research, men don't do the same. This presents an inequality.
Control over family income
There have been ways that men have tried to keep control over the family income.
Pooling
Allowance System
Pooling
This is where both partners have equal access to the same money. In other words, a joint bank account.…read more

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However sociologists still argue if it is resulting in a decrease in women doing domestic labour or if it is
just adding to the women's workload (the DUAL BURDEN)
Trending towards equality?
Jonathan Gershuny found that wives that worked fulltime did less domestic than part time workers or
housewives.…read more

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SECTION 2 (CHILDHOOD)
Childhood as a SOCIAL CONSTRUCT
Sociologists see childhood as something that is created and defined by society. This is called a SOCIAL
CONSTRUCT.
Modern Western Notion of Childhood
Western society says that childhood is a special time in life and this is where children are considered
different from adults.
Children are considered immature both mentally and physically.…read more

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Child Protection and welfare legislation, such as the 1889 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act
The growth of the idea of children's rights. The Children's Act defines parents having responsibility to
their children.
Has the Position of Children Improved?
Recap
Sociologists agree that childhood is socially constructed by different cultures.
There are many differences in childhood based on financial status and geographical location.…read more

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Neglect and Abuse ­ Excessive Control
Adult control can take the extreme form of Neglect and Abuse. Many of these are by their own parents.
Control over space
Children's movements in industrial areas has become severely limited.
Children are also banned from some stores.
80% of 7-8 year olds get driven to school because parents fear `stranger danger' and `road safety'
Play space
Also `home habitat' (place where children can play) has decreased dramatically.…read more

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