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Education & research methods


Education is seen as the main agency of secondary socialisation, children are socialized into a
system of values that underpin the society.
Education provides a bridge between home and wider society. At school each child is treated
as an individual, whereas at home they are…

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The class system is reproduced through the schooling system, educational inequality
is systematic.


Recognises that the economy influences how education is shaped and delivered.
Sociological research supports the idea that the class system is reproduced through the
schooling system.
Recognises the importance of ideology in education.
Identifies the myth…

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Key thinkers:

Spender ­ Girls believed boys demand questions while girls just get on with work. Teachers
give priority to boys; girls are less interesting and less important.
Stanworth ­ Found boys dominated the classroom and girls were seen as a lower priority
which explains why girls under-estimate their achievement…

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The vocational education initiative broadened the curriculum and emphasised the importance
of work experience.
Less academically able students were taught practical skills in order to prepare them for
NVQ'S and GNVQ'S remain on the curriculum and include both male and female subjects.
Training and enterprise councils spark controversy…

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Stanworth ­ Teachers found it hard to remember girls' names, especially the quiet
ones but the quiet boys' names were easily remembered.
Sarah, Scott and Spender ­ Girls performed better in same sex schools than boys.
Dale ­ Interviewed pupils and teachers and had a favour in mixed schools as…

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Class and education:

Douglas ­ Pupils were much more likely to stay on in school if they were from middle class
Hargreaves ­ `Kentucky fried schooling', working class boys adopted an anti social subculture
as they thought the education system was just like a system of franchise.
Ball ­…

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Teacher Labelling and self Teachers and pupils Asian girls'
expectations fulfilling prophecy. If the were from the same underachievement was
teacher expects highly of background and were blamed on the inter
you then you are likely to committed to promoting generational conflict
be a high achiever. academic achievement within their…

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if you are from a working committed to promoting white girls despite their
class background then academic success background ­ Fuller.
access to resources is through high
limited. expectations ­ Garvey.

Education and subcultures:

Pupils respond to their schooling in different ways, sociologists are interested in these subcultures.
All subcultures…

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Educational policies:

1870 Education act:

The Forster act introduced elementary education for all 5 ­ 10 year olds. By 1880 it was compulsory
for all children to be educated to the age of 10. A limited curriculum was offered focusing on the
importance of reading, writing, arithmetic and religion. Until…


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