OCR AS Sociology Unit 1 Revision Pack

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Pre-Release June 2012:
Nayak, Anoop (2006) Displaced Masculinities: Chavs, Youth and Class in the Post-industrial City,
in Sociology, Vol. 40, October 2006
This study was based in the city of Newcastle ­ a post-industrial area, where working-class
young men have had to rethink what it is to be a `man' beyond the world of industrial paid
employment. Nayak focused on the experience of young men in this area to examine how
they reshaped a whole `way of life' with the decline of traditional work and leisure lifestyles.
In this ethnographic study, he contrasted the cultural habits of young men from traditional
skilled working-class backgrounds with those from families experiencing long-term
unemployment. It explored their different `going out' experiences, their values, attitudes and
Nayak conducted an ethnographic study with two groups of young men in a range of different
locations ­ school, neighbourhood and city-centre sites ­ in Newcastle. The first group the `Real
Geordies') came from families with a background predominantly in skilled labour, and the second
were largely from unemployed communities (the `Charver kids'). The findings were gained from an
analysis of local history, and the undertaking of semi-structured interviews and participant
Nayak gained initial access to the young men through two schools in Newcastle, after
requesting permission to carry out interviews from the head teachers. The two schools were
targeted as they had a high proportion of white working class youngsters. Nayak did not set out to
examine the subcultures of Real Geordies and Charver kids; these categories emerged during the
research, in conversations with the young people themselves who seemed to use these terms as
important markers of social class distinction.
The semi-structured interviews took place with small groups of students in the school setting.
They were recorded, transcribed and then thematically coded. The interview questions were
based around exploring their values and attitudes as well as their leisure time activities, such
as going out. There was a structure to the questions, but Nayak was keen to follow the interests of
the interview respondents as this in itself was an indication of their values. However, Nayak found
that he could not easily access the Charver kids as their school attendance was so poor. As a solution,
Nayak used his position as a resident in a run down estate, near to one of the schools, which was
associated with high unemployment and those labelled Charver kids. For Nayak, this was a valuable
part of the ethnographic approach as it allowed him to observe the young people outside of school.
Nayak also used observations during nights out at weekends in the city centre and used
memory recall and observation diaries to record his findings. Nayak recognised that participant
observation could lead to unpredictable social interaction. For example, on one occasion he bumped
into a group of `Real Geordie' lads on a night out whom he had interviewed the week before. He
observed a chip-throwing fight in a local takeaway which ended up with them all being barred ­
including Nayak.
The ethnography included findings from his analysis of local history. Nayak comments that the North
East, as a region, and Newcastle, as an urban area, has undergone massive economic change, from
being a large vibrant industrial centre and mining community towards a service-based economy.
Newcastle itself has tried to rebrand it's image as a `Party City' ­ a site for excessive drinking and
hen/stag parties. However, this shift from coal mining to `clubbing' has had a huge effect upon both
the material landscape and the formation of local identities. The new `feminised' economy of call

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Nayak wanted to research the effect of
these economic changes on masculine identities.
The first group of young white working class men who have a history of family involved in
manual labour, styled themselves as `Real Geordies' who "give as good as we get" (Duane)
and who "kna who we are at the end of the day" (Cambo).…read more

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Using the pre-release material and wider sociological knowledge, explain the use of qualitative
methods/ethnography/ observations/ semi-structured interviews to research changing
masculinities/displaced masculinities. (52 marks)
Nayak collected qualitative data as primary data by conducting an ethnographic study which is the
use of both semi structured interviews and participant observations. Qualitative data consists of
descriptions of events, social interactions and words, as it strives to gain in-depth answers which
give meanings.…read more

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Semi structured interviews start off with a schedule of standardised questions around the topic area.
Nayak mentions this "there was a structure to the questions" with the opportunity for the
interviewer to ask additional questions. Nayak allowed the sample to speak freely "Nayak was keen
to follow the interests of the interview respondents". The questions can be asked in any order
depending how the interview goes and in what order or direction the interviewee takes, meaning
the process is very flexible.…read more

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Also by Nayak going native he may become absorbed into the social setting
and not remain objective during the observation process. Also, Nayaks' use of semi-structured
interviews can be argued are unique as the process is very difficult to replicate therefore affecting
the reliability of the study, as the process cannot be entirely repeated by another sociologist to the
same degree.…read more

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Haste, H. (2005) joined up texting: The roles of mobile phones in young people's lives. (52
When studying issues such as gender and age, quantitative methods are the most appropriate to
use. The data is based on numbers and statistics which are often collected by positivists. This type of
research is carried out in a logical, systematic and objective way. Advantages of using quantitative
methods are that it allows sociologists to find correlations, patterns and trends amongst the data.…read more

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Sociologists argue that since Haste's data was collected over a period of two months, it was not a
sufficient amount of time to gather the research needed. This is because if the data was collected
over a longer period of time then Haste or MORI would be able to compare trends and patterns
between their research and other researches. Any mistakes found would be corrected with the
availability of trends and correlation patterns.…read more

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Question 1 (8 marks)
Define the concept of identity. Illustrate your answer with examples.
Define the concept of consumer culture. Illustrate your answer with examples.…read more

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Define the concept of values. Illustrate your answer with examples.
Define the concept of youth. Illustrate your answer with examples.
Question 2 (16 marks)-
Outline and explain two ways in which the peer group influences young people.
Outline and explain two ways in which the media influences young people.
Outline and explain how two agents of socialisation influence age identity.
Outline and explain how two agents of socialisation influence gender identity.
Outline and explain two ways in which consumer culture influences identity.…read more

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Some social norms are not fixed for
example, it is normal to own a mobile phone or wear a suit to work. Whereas other social norms are
unchangeable; wearing a seatbelt in a car.
Norms play a crucial role in society as a kind of "social glue" by binding individuals together.
Sociologists argue where norms come from either tradition or from dominant and powerful groups in
society.…read more



With deepest thanks. 


The best resource I've come across! Thank you ever so much! :D


A fantastic resource both for students and teachers to use as a revision tools. The answers provided provide a great structure example struggling with the G671 exam. This tool could be further enhanced by highlighting the key terminology and the Point, Explanation and Evidence clearly. This is great !

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