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How to apply theories
Uses and
Strauss Barthes
Gratification
· How is the macro- · Why is represented · How does the text
element this way? appeal to the
represented? · Why does it use audience?
· What are the two this prop, setting, · What elements
contrasting (anything in the appeal to the
features? mise en scene) audience using this
theory.…read more

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Strauss
O Binary opposition: this theory states that everything must have
an opposite in order to represented in a way.
O For example, there is no good without evil; there is no up without
down.
Opposition of technique
Address O Exam: apply this to the exam and use association to establish
representatio representation. For example, The fast-paced editing presents the
n young character as energetic and chaotic, whereas the still camera
shot of the elderly character conveys them as vulnerable and weak
Microelements
due to the contrasting camera movement.
Opposition of age,
O This theory is mostly applicable for addressing the text directly
as the microelements are generally used to advocate the
theory.…read more

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Barthes
O This narrative theory states that there are 5 codes present in a text.
Hermeneutic code: How the story is Enigmatic code: How Semantic code:
told without revealing too much, so the story is presents Connotations in the text/
the audience is intrigued mystery alternative meanings
Symbolic code: similar to semantic it' Cultural code: The audience's
s the message rather than the understanding of the text and their
connotation relation
Example, The long shot of the woman in the red dress portrays ideologies of women, as
the character is mainly depicted through her physical appearance. According to
Barthes semantic code, the emphasis on the female's beauty may reflect the over-
sexualised images of women which are conveyed in the media. This advocated by the
use of costume as red is often associated with lust especially in western cultures.
However, the brief camera shot of the female characters highlights the character's
insignificance; nonetheless, the audience is intrigued by the ostentatious brightness
of her dress and thus, the character is presented in a mysterious manner.…read more

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Uses and gratification
theory Personal
Personal identity: Surveillance: people relationship: A Escapism: when life
relate to the want to be informed method of building gets you down,
characters (nosey) relationships i.e. switch the telly on.
Facebook
This focuses on why audiences consume media products. To target this
theory, you must explain why the extract would be appealing to audiences
and analyse parts of the extract which hit these aims.
Examples: The extract addresses the issue of immigration, which would be appealing to
audiences as immigration is topic which is currently predominant, especially in Britain.
The programme is most likely to appeal to a northern audience as the setting of the
drama is in Manchester. This advocated by the accent of the characters.
According to Todorov's theory, the fast-pace editing may suggest that the extract is
presenting the disequilibrium stage in the narrative. The chaotic representation appeals
to audience's interest in excitement and heightens their emotions.…read more

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Overall
O You will have to look at the way these
theories can be applied to the text
O You as an audience member must establish
the interesting features of the extract
O Media is a viral reflection of society
O Do not forget to refer to the genre of the text
as the conventions of this genre may be
reasons why macroelements are
represented in a way.
O Good luck…read more

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