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Audiences
Mass media effects: models and theories

Homogenous audience: an assumption that audiences have common social characteristics and react in
similar ways to media texts.

Social networks: groups of people such as friends and family who influence uses and interpretations of
media texts.

Opinion leaders: influential individuals in social networks.…

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He studied media effects theory in study of 1984/85 miners' strike.
Methodology: Groups of people including miners and police involved in strike and people who weren't were
asked to produce news stories and headlines about strike, they were given small no. of photographs to act
as stimulus. Groups were clear…

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Pluralists and Postmodernists
Moral panics have become almost continuous in sensationalised news coverage (paedophilia, asylums
seekers, binge drinking, hoodies etc.)Argue sheer volume of moral panics means media is less able to
produce same depth of reaction; audiences have become more cynical & distrustful of media accounts.

Relationship between media and…

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Cultural Effect/Sensitisation
A more plausible argument is the steady intake of violence the media feeds us may cause desensitisation
(i.e. we come to accept higher level of violence as normal) ­ drip feed idea central to Cultural Effects model.
However, it can be argued media violence may have reverse effect…

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