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Behaviour that goes against conventional norms and values and generally accepted behaviour. This is behaviour
which most people would regard as inappropriate, unacceptable and wrong. Deviance is usually subject to a variety
of social controls ranging from mild disapproval to severe punishment. Downes and Rock 2003 said that `deviance…

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3. Influence of the mass media -
- black RAP artists
- media over reporting (Cohen)
- creation of folk devils


Official statistics of crime and gender show that 8% of the total UK prison population are female which does not
show how many women commit crimes,…

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detect due to the criminals being more educated about how not to get caught and more `sensible' ways of
committing this type of crime. There is also a lack of awareness that a crime has been committed because lots of
people are now doing it which means that a lot…

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crime rate was higher in cities, as the complexity of modern life undermined the authority of religion and family.
Consensus, community and social controls are weaker, so people are more likely to experience anomie - a sense of
moral confusion that weakens their commitment to shared values and rules, encouraging…

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status from their peers by being good at delinquent behaviour such as stealing, fighting and vandalism.
Cohen was criticised as other sociologists suggest that most working class boys actually conform at school despite
educational failure. He was also criticised for ignoring female delinquency. Cohen neglects the role of agencies of…

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and values from one generation to the next. This cultural transmission ensures that young criminals, whether male or
female, learn criminal skills and traditions from the older generation, and that social disorganisation is reproduced
and maintained.
Sutherland and Cressey suggest that cultural behaviour is shaped by those around them. This…

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Snider notes that the capitalist state is reluctant to pass laws that potentially threaten capitalism, for
example tax cuts.
Reiman argues that white collar crimes are under policed and under punished.
Box notes that the powerful kill and steal from ordinary members of society but these killings are not

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symbolic reaction to the decline of working class communities. He read this as a challenge to class inequalities. In
evaluation of this that there is little empirical evidence to support it.
This theory has been criticised by saying the Marxists neglect gender and ethnicity as influences on youth
subcultures. They…

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Marginalisation. Some groups find themselves politically and economically `on the edge' of society,
through factors like poor educational achievement, unemployment, and a lack of involvement in community
Subculture. Working class deviant subcultures emerge as group solutions to problems arising from social
inequality, though they take different forms over time…

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currently the perceived costs of crime are low, so the crime rate has increased. Criminals foresee the little risk of
being caught and they view punishment if they are caught as weak and ineffective.
Control theorist, Hirshi argues that people are generally rational in terms of their actions and choices…


vikki toria






Ibrahim - Team GR


Totally great resource with content and nicely ordered with headings aswell separating each part, I really like this! As a minor suggestion, Could have used more colour? Thanks Ibby.






just no

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