SCLY3 Global Development Summary

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A2 Global Development Revision.
Topic 1: Globalisation
Topic 2: Defining and Measuring Development
Topic 3: Theories of Development and Underdevelopment
Topic 4: Development Aid and its role in International Development
Topic 5: Industrialisation, Urbanisation and Development
Topic 6: Agencies of Development
Topic 7: Employment, Education and Health
Topic 8: Gender and Development
Topic 9: War and Conflict
Topic 10: Population and Consumption
Topic 11: Environment
Topic 1: Globalisation
Globalisation: The increasing connectedness between societies across the globe. Time-Space
Compression is where the world appears to have shrunk because technology allows us to get info
from across the world instantly. Tim-Space Distanciation is where events in remote places have a
greater impact on our life in Britain and vice-versa (think 911).
Positivists: Globalisation is a good thing; it is a worldwide extension of Capitalism which will lead to
economic growth, eradication of poverty and spread of democracy (Closely associated with
Pessimists: Globalisation is a bad thing; it is Western, mainly American Imperialism whose ideas are
being imposed on the rest of the world, TNCs in particular benefit from economic globalisation
(Closely associated with Marxists).
Transformationalists: Globalisation is too complex to understand through one `grand theory'; It is
foolish to reject the concept but it has been exaggerated.
Traditionalists: Globalisation has been radically exaggerated; Nation States and local communities still
have the power to resist it.
Economic globalisation- The emergence of a globalised economic system consisting of increasingly
interconnected world trade and consumption.
+ = Economic globalisation creates wealth and jobs when local companies can't; this raises the
aspirations of the locals and provides jobs for women so that gender equality can improve. It also
encourages more international trade which will provide more money for those local economies and
the rest of the world. More money means improved health and education for most countries
(countries that are part of the global trade network also tend to have higher GDPs).
- = Economic globalisation hasn't benefited everyone: most of Sub-Saharan Africa is still in poverty
and even in wealthy countries there are a huge number of unemployed and homeless people.
Increase in global trade has also had an increase on illegal trade. Trade depends on industrial
manufacturing which uses up fossil fuels and creates lots of pollution. TNCs exploit workers and their
local natural resources (Shell in Nigeria). Many people are forced out of their homes or given poor
paying jobs that are taken away from them as soon as another cheaper workforce is found.

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Traditionalists would say that these effects are no different to what was experienced during
Cultural globalisation- The spread of similar goods and services across the world has led to a
similar pattern of consumption; modern communications has led to instantaneous global news and
info; centuries of migration have led to diverse cultures and possibly the growth of a global culture
where more people across the world share similar values and ideas.…read more

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Topic 2: Defining and Measuring Development
Economic Development: Typically measured by GNP (gross national product): the total value of
goods and services produced in a country in a year. A country with a developed economy will
typically produce and sell high value products or service- both at home and abroad.
Social Development: refers to the improvement of the broader standard of living in a country:
education (literary rate), life expectancy, health (infant mortality rate), democracy (voting, fair
elections) and gender empowerment.…read more

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Production in developing countries is often subsistence base and consumed locally in the
community, not sold in the market place so does not have any formal economic value. Goods
obtained on the black market aren't measured. There are inconsistencies in measurement. GNP is a
very western concept and some countries may not want economic growth but have other goals (e.g.
Bhutan).…read more

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Topic 3: Theories of Development and Underdevelopment
Modernisation theory: Developed in the late 1940s with three major aims: To explain why poorer
countries have failed to develop (focusing mainly on cultural `barriers' to development), to suggest
that developing countries needed help from the western world so that they could modernise and
lastly to provide a specifically non-communist solution to poverty in the developing world- it is and
American theory that aims to spread Capitalism to the developing world before communism gets
there.…read more

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There are also ecological limits to growth. Many modernisation projects have led to the destruction
of environment.
Dependency theory: Dependency theory developed in the 1970s as a response to Modernisation
theory. The best known dependency theorist is Andre Gunder Frank who argued that the
underdevelopment of the third world makes possible the development of the West. Unlike
modernisation theory, dependency theory sees the obstacles to development being imposed from
the outside rather than being internal to developing countries.…read more

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The Semi-Periphery- The `industrialising, sweat-shop manufacturing' areas who turn raw materials
into high end products for the `top billion'.
The Periphery- is the poorer countries and regions who export raw materials to the semi-periphery.
What makes Wallerstein's theory different is that he argues that countries can be upwardly or
downwardly mobile in this world system.…read more

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Development techniques: People centred development means `ground up development' ­
empowering local communities. Because of this, there are potentially thousands of pathways to
development: The thousands of small scale fair trade and micro finance projects around the world
are good examples of PCD style projects embedded in a global network.
-Bhutan is a good country level example of PCD principles ­ globalising on their own terms.
-Indigenous peoples living traditional lifestyles, effectively rejecting most of what the west has to
offer is another good example.…read more

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Topic 4: Aid and International Development
Official Development Aid: It comes from national governments and international aid agencies. These
take two forms:
Bilateral aid: Involves developed countries giving money directly to developing world governments.
57% of foreign aid is bilateral with India and Bangladesh receiving the majority.…read more

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NGO that puts a lot of money into developing education for schools and advertising to keep
developing world issues in the public consciousness. 4) The `emergency aid function', when natural or
social disasters occur (earthquakes, hurricanes, famine) NGOs are often the front line in the delivery
of emergency aid.
Advantages of NGO Aid- They are generally smaller and thus more responsive to the needs of local
There is no political agenda and thus aid is not `tied aid'- it is freely given.…read more


Izzy Bradshaw

Thank you. This document is really useful and clear. 


Everything there is very useful so thank you for that :)

However, topics 8,9 and 11 seem to be missing. Is there any reason for this?

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