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A2 Global Development Revision.

Topic 1: Globalisation
Topic 2: Defining and Measuring Development
Topic 3: Theories of Development and Underdevelopment
Topic 4: Development Aid and its role in International Development
Topic 5: Industrialisation, Urbanisation and Development
Topic 6: Agencies of Development
Topic 7: Employment, Education and Health
Topic 8: Gender…

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Traditionalists would say that these effects are no different to what was experienced during

Cultural globalisation- The spread of similar goods and services across the world has led to a
similar pattern of consumption; modern communications has led to instantaneous global news and
info; centuries of migration have led…

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Topic 2: Defining and Measuring Development

Economic Development: Typically measured by GNP (gross national product): the total value of
goods and services produced in a country in a year. A country with a developed economy will
typically produce and sell high value products or service- both at home and abroad.…

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wealth. Production in developing countries is often subsistence base and consumed locally in the
community, not sold in the market place so does not have any formal economic value. Goods
obtained on the black market aren't measured. There are inconsistencies in measurement. GNP is a
very western concept and some…

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Topic 3: Theories of Development and Underdevelopment

Modernisation theory: Developed in the late 1940s with three major aims: To explain why poorer
countries have failed to develop (focusing mainly on cultural `barriers' to development), to suggest
that developing countries needed help from the western world so that they could modernise…

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-There are also ecological limits to growth. Many modernisation projects have led to the destruction
of environment.
Dependency theory: Dependency theory developed in the 1970s as a response to Modernisation
theory. The best known dependency theorist is Andre Gunder Frank who argued that the
underdevelopment of the third world makes…

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The Semi-Periphery- The `industrialising, sweat-shop manufacturing' areas who turn raw materials
into high end products for the `top billion'.
The Periphery- is the poorer countries and regions who export raw materials to the semi-periphery.

What makes Wallerstein's theory different is that he argues that countries can be upwardly or

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Development techniques: People centred development means `ground up development' ­
empowering local communities. Because of this, there are potentially thousands of pathways to
development: The thousands of small scale fair trade and micro finance projects around the world
are good examples of PCD style projects embedded in a global network.…

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Topic 4: Aid and International Development

Official Development Aid: It comes from national governments and international aid agencies. These
take two forms:
Bilateral aid: Involves developed countries giving money directly to developing world governments.
57% of foreign aid is bilateral with India and Bangladesh receiving the majority.
Multilateral aid: Involves…

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NGO that puts a lot of money into developing education for schools and advertising to keep
developing world issues in the public consciousness. 4) The `emergency aid function', when natural or
social disasters occur (earthquakes, hurricanes, famine) NGOs are often the front line in the delivery
of emergency aid.



Izzy Bradshaw


Thank you. This document is really useful and clear. 



Everything there is very useful so thank you for that :)

However, topics 8,9 and 11 seem to be missing. Is there any reason for this?

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