Modernisation Theory - SCLY3

  • Created by: Kizzy
  • Created on: 15-05-13 11:41
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  • Modernisation Theory
    • Aid
      • Universal Benefits for developing countries - helping societies meet the pre-conditions for take-off
      • The injection of money into LEDC's helps to overcome subsistence standards of living and the lack of investment in new technologies and practices
      • Overcome cultural barriers: used to establish meritocratic education system (that promote cultural change aswell as providing a skilled workforce
      • Providing education systems also provides a means of utilizing the abilities of the whole population e.g. family planning & traditional patriarchal structures can be broken down
      • successful - improvements in infant mortality, life expectancy, literacy levels and many nations experienced  economic growth
    • Globalisation
      • Increased growth of TNC's and International Trade
      • Global equality can happen by removing internal barriers that prevent domestic markets from being integrated into the global system - minority world should "tap in" to the economic benefits of globalisation
      • The process brings closer international dialogue and provides opportunities for conflict resolution (UN) - end of war, world peace and stability
        • Individuals can now assert influence to political decisions through their choices as consumers and customers
      • Sprwad in democratic and human rights; ensuring that all people regardless of gender ethnicity etc recieve legal protection and rights, similar to MEDC's
    • Trade
      • Increasing trade in the South is a element of any strategy to improve living standards
        • Injecting capital to encourage industrial-isation (key feature for economic take-off)
      • Rostow argued that it was important to create a sense of competition to bring about economic development rather than using internal markets
        • Bauer (New Right) argues that development can be achieved by allowing individual enterprise and the drive for personal profits to increase
    • TNC's
      • Agree's with Neo-Liberal   perspectives on TNC's
      • Believes that the investments brought by TNC's as a means of over coming economic barriers to developement
        • Imported technology,   infrastructure    and the wages earned by employment can help break cycles of subsistence living (pre-conditions for take off)
      • Overcome cultural barriers: corporations require educated work forces - promoting education and urbanisation
        • Operate similarly to western ideas of bonuses and promotions; promote values such as individuality and competition
    • Poverty
      • Rostow's explanation for poverty is a lack of surplus economic capital - the activities of people within the developing world are undertaken in order to ensure basic living needs
        • Therefore, profit is not generated and wealth is not accumulated -  cant establish  the pre-condition for take-off
    • Gender & Development
      • Introduction of TNC;s; workforces are more likely to given women the opportunity to work - promoting gender equality
      • Four times as many women died in the Tsunami in 2004 - men were out of area working, womens efforts to help save children, too
      • USA and UK have low GEP, even though they have a high GDP, HDI and GDI
      • Gender inequalities are caused by internal factors because political decision making may have an effect on gender inequality e.g. allowing women to work/ vote
    • Population & Development
      • As countries develop, their populations will follow the same trend as developed countries
      • Populations grow at a rate in which they cannot feed themselves, which explains why  925 million people are starving
      • Populations grow exponentially
      • Malthusian Checks: Famine, Natural Disaster and War
        • Neo-Malthsuians - Aid is bad because it messes with Maltheusian Checks (Family Planning)
    • Health & Development
      • Development brings states of illness (epidemio-logical transition) - main cause of illness changes from being infectious disease to 'disease of affluence'
        • 3 Stages: Age of Pestilence and Famine; Age of Receding Pandemics; Stage of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases
      • LEDC's should use MEDC's expertise to concentrate resources in centralised health care servies and mass immunisation programmes
      • Further developed by Hackenberg (1987) who adds the hybristic stage
        • Western societies have an overconfidence in the medical profession: results in self-destructive  behaviors  e.g. smoking
      • MEDC's can help through use of aid: money, technology and traning
    • Barriers To Development
      • Population Growth at same % as economic growth = no development as they have to invest surplus capital in combating famine rather than developing inductry
      • Cannot generate profit and wealth cannot be accumulated because products people produce have to be used for basic living needs
      • Cultural Barriers: Parsons argues that modernisation  theory emphasises traditionalism which results less economic progress
      • Rostow believes that a way to overcome these barriers to development, MEDC's must intervene and produce catalysts which would prompt and siupport development
    • Catalysts for Development
      • Economic: input from MEDC's is vital; providing aid (gifts and loans) from agencies such as the World Bank and IMF
      • Urbanisation - free individuals from the constaints of being community-reliant
      • Western aid and loans should be used to establish education systems - work force and encourage individualism and competeition
      • Mass media should be established - diffusion of western values (geographical mobility, family planing, secular beliefs and democracy)
      • Parsons, Inkles and Hoselitz's contributions have highlighted that development is more than economic reform




hi do you have any other revision stuff for global development? so stuck on it!

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