Revision Notes for AQA 2B - Church in England

Key Themes with evidence for this paper

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Tudor Revision
Condition of the Church in 1529
Overall Themes: Reformation from above or below
Key Questions: Was the Church in 1529 in desperate need for reform?
Was the Church in 1529 in dire condition? Etc
Historians: Duffy (Catholic) ­ from above
Dickens ­ from below
Critics: John Colet ­ English churchman ­ problems with corruption, greed and priests having fun
at the expense of doing their duty.
Simon Fish ­ Protestant lawyer. Wrote Supplication for the beggars, which contains
misrepresentations about the behaviour of the clergy.
Argument: From above, there were some problems with the church but most people were
happy with the church shown by the lack of complaints.
Themes: 1.Clergy Behaviour ­ immorality -incompetence
-financial abuses (simony (sale of ecclesiastical title) and mortuary
-ignorance/ neglect (due to pluralism)
2. Evidence of satisfaction ­ (see below)
3. Theology ­ Majority still believed in traditional beliefs, only small numbers of reformers
and church itself did not change that much after the reformation so can't have been that
Types of evidence that could be used:
Priests ­ Immorality ­ Bishop of Ely had 3 children, Wolsey had two, and a brothel only for
priests was found in London in 1514
But only 2 non celibate bishops.
Visitation records from 1511-12 where Archbishop Warham visited 260 parishes and found
only 6 priests suspected of sexual misconduct.
-Incompetence + Ignorance + Neglect- the Bishop of London examined quality of London
priests ­ only declared 14 `adequate' and banned 21 and suspended 16.
-only 54% of Gloucester priests could recite the 10 commandments in early C16th.
-25% of priests were found to be pluralists in Lincoln, in Canterbury this was 50%.
Harper Bill protests that clergy were paid so little, so even pluralists didn't have enough to
live on.
Only 4% complained and this was mainly about their age rather than neglect ­they just
wanted pastoral support rather than deep theological guidance.
-Financial ­ mortuary fees (Hunne Case where Richard Hunne was ordered to give his baby'c
christening gown as a mortuary fee for the priest, but he refused, he had a property dispute

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Lollard bible and was murdered in prison.) simony,
pluralism. Sale of holy relics such as
But Scarisbrick found 60% of people left money to church in wills ­ wouldn't have if they felt
they had had too much already.
Satisfaction ­ Complaints ­ during the period 1514-21, a survey found that
only 4% complained in the Lincoln survey.…read more

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Mary who was still alive but was a woman in a patriarchal
society which had civil war the last time there was a female Queen.
Disputed succession ­ the Tudor reign is insecure due to its relative newness and
therefore it needs a strong King. There could be claims to the throne from Princess
Mary, Henry Fitzroy and Richard le Pole (until his death in 1525).…read more

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Campeggio as well. Blackfriar trial begins in March 1529 (court hears both cases
including Catherine's appeals). 23rd July 1529 decision expected but Campeggio delays over
summer of 1529. October 1529- Court does not meet. Wolsey has lost power and is removed
in 1529, replaced as Chancellor by Thomas More as it has been stretched from Dec 1527-1529
without Henry's desired outcome.
November 1529 ­ Henry calls Reformation Parliament.
1530-31 Years of Drift.…read more

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Argument: Power but excuses were state of church and divorce and encouraged by advisers and
money. Link power throughout.
Themes: 1. Personal Power ­opportunity to expand power and influence
2. Advisers ­ not normally sustained interest -knew direction ­AB faction
3. State of the Church ­reform needed -used MPs complaints
4. Finance ­ rich church
5. To get a divorce/ son ­pressure on Pope for divorce
Types of evidence that could be used:
1.…read more

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Argument: Pope's actions allow Cromwell to keep pressurizing Henry because the Pope doesn't
recognise Anne and believes Elizabeth is a bastard.
Themes: 1. Power of Monarch
2. Religious change
3. People introduced
Types of evidence that could be used:
1534- Act of First Fruits and Tenths
-anyone in the clergy has to give their first year's salary to Henry when you get the job after give
10% of annual salary.…read more

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Henry. They were a threat because they were well respected, united,
and influential as well as being geographically close to London (in Greenwich).
Franciscans - 7 friars were shut nationally in 1534 with the inmates forced out
of the public and the stubborn imprisoned (30 died). The Carthusians were
attempted to use an example but they became martyrs, so over 3yrs 18 key
figures were removed and executed, causing a hollow victory for Henry as he
looked brutal despite them signing the oath.…read more

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Henry VIII's grandmother who became a nun when she became a widow, and there
was only 1 confession of homosexuality per 30 monasteries.
New religious ideas ­ Luther was a monk and published `de votis monasticis' which
criticised monastic life as there was no scriptural basis of it. BUT Henry wrote a book
saying Luther was a heretic in 1521.
BUT Henry was still theologically Catholic- so didn't get rid of because of superstition
as he still believed it.
3.…read more

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Political ­ Cromwell. Threats to nobility. Earl of Northumberland.
Types of evidence that could be used:
1. Religious ­ 1/3 of demands. Demand restoration of monasteries (timing when dis monasteries
began), removal of heresy and return to papal authority. Defending the Faith. Attacked heretical
bishops e.g. Cranmer. March under banner of 5 wounds of Christ. show not rebellion against
2. Socio-economic- merges with social as people received food from monasteries.…read more

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Argument: Trying to purify the Church and make it more accessible, the core beliefs (trans, 7
sacraments and justification by faith are never truly denied)
Themes: 1. Influence of Cromwell (Lutheran)
2. Response to domestic issues (PoG)
3.Foreign Policy (Francis and Charles)
1. More Protestant ­ acts
2. More Protestant ­ actions
3. More Conservative ­ acts
4. More Conservative -actions
Types of evidence that could be used:
More reformist...…read more



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