Freedom Revision

  • Created by: noob
  • Created on: 21-09-12 10:36
What is the definition of freedom?
Freedom is the state of being free or at liberty by acting on your own free will, rather than being in constraint or confinement.
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Who distinguished between two types of freedom?
Isaiah Berlin
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What two types of freedom are there?
Positive freedom and Negative freedom
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What is positive freedom?
Modern liberals have a positive idea about freedom. This suggest that in order to gain freedom, one needs to develop and achieve self realization.(compulsary education)
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What is negative freedom?
Early liberals believed in negative freedom, this freedom exist in people being left alone, free from interference and able to act in whatever they choose. (freedom from the government)
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What type of government supports the view of negative freedom?
Limited governent because they want freedom from the government which means no interference of government.
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What theory supports the view of negative freedom?
Rationalism because negative freedom suggest that people can make rational decisions by themselves.
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What type of democracy supports the view of positive freedom?
Meritocracy because when people develop their self-realization, their responsibilities are assigned based upon their abilities.
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What is Bentham's view on utilitarianism?
People do actions to to result in the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people. He believed that seeking happiness was a part of human nature and that all forms of happiness are equal.
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What is John Stuart Mill's view on utilitarianism?
Mill expanded the view of utilitarianism as he believes that pleasures can be distinguished as higher and lower pleasures.
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Why is modern liberalism sometimes described as 'twentieth century liberalism'?
Because modern liberalism ideas were related to the develop of industrialization.
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What are the two views of modern liberalism?
One view says that classical liberals have argued that modern liberalism effectively broke with the principles and doctrines that had previously defined liberalism. The other view is that modern liberalism has revised and expanded the view of CL.
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What are the four ideas modern liberalism look to advocate?
Individuality, Positive Freedom, Social Liberalism & Economic Management.
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Who said I would rather be 'Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied'.
John Stuart Mill
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Why did the idea of a laissez-faire economy go away?
The abandoment of laissez-faire economy came about because of the increasing complexity of industrial economies.
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What event led to high unemployment in the 1930's?
The Great Depression, which was sparked off by the Wall Street Crash
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After WW2, why did western states adapt to economic intervention policies?
Because there was large levels of unemployment after the war and these policies attempted to return pre war levels of unemployment.
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Who guided the intervention policies to tackle unemployment?
John Maynard Keynes
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What did Keynes argue to classical economists?
He said that economic activity is controlled by the total amount of demand which is aggregate demand.
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Card 2


Who distinguished between two types of freedom?


Isaiah Berlin

Card 3


What two types of freedom are there?


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Card 4


What is positive freedom?


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Card 5


What is negative freedom?


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