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Censorship and Propaganda
Censorship was brought about because of DORA (the Defence of the Realm Act).
Until the Somme, people in Britain had no idea of the conditions in the trenches or the appalling
loss of life.
Letters from soldiers were censored.
Reporters were not allowed to see battles often.
No photography could be taken which showed dead soldiers.
Casualty figures weren't available from the government
.
Often parliament wasn't told how the war was going.
Newspapers and films were often censored and gave out propaganda information.
Government propaganda gave a rosy picture of the the war, and showed the enemies to be
cruel barbarians.
There was 'good news only' - the British people were only told of great British victories or heroic
resistance.…read more

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The Changing Role of Women
At the beginning of the war the work forces had been reorganised: Lloyd George made a deal
with trade unions to allow unskilled workers and women to take the jobs of absent men during
the war.
These women were vital to the munitions industries.
When production increased, the women took on other jobs - e.g. on railways.
After the war there was still a massive shortage of men, and the efforts of women were
recognised by the government who gave them the vote in 1918.
Women over 30 who owned a house, or were married to a homeowner, were given the right to
vote.
Rationing and the effects of Submarine Warfare
By 1917 there was a food supply crisis because the U-Boats were sinking 25% of all merchant
shipping coming to the UK.
In 1916, Lloyd George decided to take several steps. Firstly, he introduced the convoy system -
merchant ships travelled in groups with a Navy escort. This meant that U-Boats could not attack
without the risk of being sunk. Thereafter, only 1% of shipping was sunk. Secondly, food
rationing was introduced in 1918. This was voluntary at first, but it was soon made compulsory
for everyone. Lastly, he increased food production by encouraging farmers to use more land.…read more

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Recruitment
The first troops in 1914 were volunteers - they believed that it would be an exciting adventure
and recruiting posters made people feel that it was their duty to join.
The numbers of volunteers slowed down as the war dragged on to 1915 with the number of
casualties on the Western Front very high.
Conscription was introduced by DORA in May 1916.
The law stated that all single men between the ages of 18 and 41 had to fight.
Then all married men between 18 and 41 also had to fight.
There were many conscientious objectors - people who didn't believe in fighting, who were
branded as criminal and put in prison. Some were shot as traitors for refusing to fight.
Conscription led to a shortage of workers in vital industries.…read more

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Charles Booth
Charles Booth (1840-1916) born into a rich shipping family in Liverpool. He moved his company
to London in 1870. He didn't believe the governments statistics said that 25% of the working
class were living in poverty. He set up his own team of investigators to find out for himself. Over
a period of 17 years (1886-1903) him and his team found out about the working and lving
conditions of over 4000 people. He them published 17 volumes of his findings ' Life and Labour
of the people in London'. He found that nearly 31% of Londoners were living below what he
called POVERTY LINE.
Education Acts
Education (Meals) 1906
provided free meals
Allowed children to concentrate on learning
Was not compulsory
Education (Health) 1907
medical inspections
by 1914 2/3s of LEAs were providing free treatment
not all LEAs provided the treatment…read more

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Education Acts
Education (Meals) 1906
provided free meals
Allowed children to concentrate on learning
Was not compulsory
Education (Health) 1907
medical inspections
by 1914 2/3s of LEAs were providing free treatment
not all LEAs provided the treatment
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National Insurance
National Insurance (Unemployment) 1911
compelled workers and bosses to contribute to a weekly national insurance fund
covered 2.25 million workers
only for certain trades (building, shipping trades)
National Insurance (Sickness) 1911
compulsory where workers paid weekly instalments
covered 13 million workers
only covered the contributor (not family)…read more

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