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Slide 1

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The respiratory system consists
Topic 1.2.3
of 3 components:
The air passages
2. Lungs
3. Diaphragm
The role of the lungs is
to provide a site for A flexible tube held
gaseous exchange open by rings of
(transfer oxygen into cartilage
Part of the skeletal
One of the two
system, they protect the
branches which the
lungs and other vital
trachea splits into
in the lungs
These are between the
The smaller branches
bs, they help you breathe
which the bronchi
in and out
split into
This helps you breathe, it is These are tiny air sacs
a sheet of muscle under the which form in bunches at
lungs the end of the bronchioles,
they have thin walls for
gases to pass through
(capillaries which are 1 cell
Inspiration: EXPIRATION:
· the intercostal muscles contract, this lifts · the intercostal muscles relax, the ribs go
the ribs upwards and outwards. This downwards and inwards, the chest decreases in
causes the chest to expand size
· the diaphragm contracts, this pulls it · the diaphragm relaxes. It once again is pushed
down and flattens the floor of the ribcage into a dome shape, by the organs below
· The lungs can increase in size as the · the chest gets smaller, the lungs decrease in size,
chest expands being squeezed by ribs and diaphragm
· The pressure inside our lungs falls as · the pressure inside the lungs decreases, air is
they expand. The higher pressure of air forced out o the lungs through the nose and
outside means air is now sucked into the mouth, and the pressure outside is now lower than
lungs through the nose and mouth inside the lungs…read more

Slide 2

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Topic 1.2.3
Oxygen Debt ­ "the amount of oxygen needed after
The difference between inhaled and exhaled air.
exercise to return to its (breathing) normal state" The average number of breaths per minute is 15.
Gas Inhaled Exhaled
Tidal Volume ­ "is the normal amount you breathe in and Oxygen 20 16
out in one normal breath" Carbon Dioxide 0.04 (trace) 4
Vital Capacity ­ "is the maximum volume of air you can Nitrogen 79 79
breathe out after breathing in as much as you can" Water Vapour Small amount Large
Residual Volume ­ "is the amount of air left in your lungs
after you have breathed out as hard/much as you can"
Gaseous exchange takes place by
Gas exchange at the diffusion in the alveoli within the
alveoli: lungs. As a result the composition of
· The two bronchi which lead to each inhaled and exhaled air is different.
lung divide into many bronchioles
· These are less than 1 mm in
diameter and end in cauliflower like
clusters of tiny sacs called alveoli
· alveoli = tiny air sacs in the lungs
· When you breathe in, they fill with With training, gaseous exchange
air becomes more efficient and
· The alveoli are covered in tiny therefore performance improves.
capillaries (blood vessels) This is a long term and continued
· Gases can pass through the tiny thin benefit of exercise on the
walls and travel into the blood stream respiratory system.…read more

Slide 3

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Topic 1.2.3
SYSTEM Aerobic Respiration ­ this is with oxygen, and produces
much more energy than its alternative. It can be maintained
LONG TERM effects of training on the respiratory system: for longer periods of time and would typically be used in
marathon running, road race cycling (tour de France)...
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + water + (energy)
Anaerobic Respiration ­ this is without oxygen. It is
· INCREASE in LUNG VOLUME for exercising at high intensities, when enough oxygen
cannot be supplied to the muscles. This is typically used
· VITAL CAPACITY will INCREASE in events such as 100m race or weightlifting. The product
of lactic acid can cause fatigue so needs to be broken
down by oxygen.
How exercise affects breathing (short
Exercise causes for breathing rate and depth of
breathing to increase, this is because the need SMOKING AND ALCOHOL
for oxygen in the body is greater, and the need Smoking ­ overtime, smoking will reduce
to remove carbon dioxide. the lungs surface area and ruins alveoli
Breathing rate can increase by up to 50 more structures.
breaths per minute, and as we exercise vital This will lead to a decrease in gaseous
capacity will increase due to the demand for air exchange, making the individual feel short
in the body. of breath.
As we become fitter, the bodies lung capacity will Alcohol ­ drinking excessively leads to
increase, as will blood carrying capacity ­ these poor respiration. Alcohol can slow it down
adaptations will contribute to better performance. This is and also effect blood pressure. Some
ongoing and will keep on improving with regular fitness people will suffer from alcohol poisoning.
training.…read more


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