Revision notes starting from 1.2.1- Perfomance enhancing drugs

Drugs- a substance that can be taken in a variety of ways to produce expected and welcome effects on the person taking it.

Perfomance enhancing drugs: Why?

Improve their performance, encouraged by the coach, temptation of the reward/success, make money.

Anabolic Steroids- they mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and mucscle growth. So they increase strength and allow harder training with quick recovery.

Side effects- increased risk of heart attack/stroke, liver disease, high blood pressure, infertility in women, facial hair (women), agression, deepens voice.

Beta Blockers- Control heart rate, reduce anxiety levels, calm the perfomer and improve steadiness (archery/snooker)

Side effects- nausea, diarrhoea, tiredness, depression, insomnia and nightmares.

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Diuretics- elevate the rate of urine production, causes weight loss (boxers/jockeys), hides traces of other drugs

Side effects- Dehydration, leads to dizziness, cramps, headaches and nausea. Kidney problems, loss of salts.

NarcotIcs/analgesics- reduce pain so performers can return quickly after injury or perform with injury

Side effects- loss of concentration, balance and coordination, emotional effects, drowsiness, low blood pressure, addictive

Stimulants-increase alertness/reaction time, offset effects of lactic acid on muscles so you can work for longer without aching.

Side effects- insomnia, irratibilty, irrgeular heart beat, high blood pressure, addiction

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Peptide Hormones- increase muscle development

Side effects- heart disease, risk of stroke, high blood pressure

Erythropoietin (EPO)- increases aerobic capacity, long distance

Side effects- increased risk of heart attack/stroke

Recreational Drugs:

Smoking/nicotine- poor aerobic fitness which leads to poor performance as it damages CV system and the oxygen carrying capacity.

Side effects- raises heart rate/blood pressure, tired and breathless, circulation problems

Alcohol-slower reactions, impairs judgement, lack of oxgen to muscles, lose drive to train/perfomance

Side effects- hangover, dehydration (headache), irregular heart beat, weight gain, depression, liver damage

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Socially acceptable drugs- may be prescribed by a doctor or can be bought over the counter to treat medical conditions

Socially unacceptable drugs- illegal i.e heroin, cocaine, LSD, cannabis etc. All have negative side effects and can be dangerous or fatal

Risk assessment and preventing injuries:

Warming up/ cooling down- warming muscles prevents injury, cooling down disperses lactic acid.

Checking equipment and facilities- safe and secure, equipment in good condition e.g Football, pitch is suitable and clear markings

Protective equiment and clothing- shinpads, gumshields, riding hat. More clothing for more vulnerable position. Remove jewellery as it might injure opponent.

Footwear- to help performance, studs to grip, spikes for grip, jumpers for when they land, road runners to protect feet and legs 

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Balanced Competition-

Weight categories- boxing, to keep players safe

Mixed or single sex- for safety purposes especially in contact sports

Age- to make it fair but same age is not always same height/weight, veterans/senior categories

Handicap system- players of unequal ability can play in direct competition (golf)

Playing to the rules- ensure safety, keep the game flowing, punishment if broken.

Physical readiness- ensure you are ready to take part


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Cardiovascular System- heart, blood and blood vessels.

Function- Heart pushes blood around the body through the blood vessels. The blood supplies the body with oxgen and nutrients. It also removes waste products like carbon dioxide.

CV system during exercise:

Increased heart rate- muscles require more oxgen so heart has to work faster to pump blood around the body. Adrenaline is released to change heart rate.

Blood pressure increases- force exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels, more blood pumping so more pressure on vessels, systole and diastole sounds get louder

Systolic- pressure when heart pushes blood out of the aorta into the body

Diastolic- pressure during relaxation between beats

Pulse pressure- difference between above


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Immediate physiological effects of exercise on the body:

Breathing becomes faster and deeper- so more oxgen can get to the lungs, heart cannot carry enough oxygen if the lungs don't get enough from breathing.

Body temperature increases- muscles generate heat so temp rises

Sweating starts and body requires fluids- sweating begins to regulate body temp, sweat evaporates on the skin which requires heat energy from the body so temp drops. Salt lost in sweat needs replacing or cramps or fainting, feeding stations at marathon prevent this

Muscles begin to ache- muscles require oxygen and glucose (respiration), when muscles work harder more is needed, heart beats faster but still not enough. Anaerobic respiration used instead, waste product of lactic acid and this causes aching


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Effect of regular exercise on the CV system:

Decreased resting heart rate- heart becomes stronger with training so it can supply the same blood with fewer beats.

Heart recovery rate- fitter you are the faster recovery rate.

Increased stroke volume- amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one beat, because heart is more efficient.

Cardiac output increases- amount of blood ejected from the heart in a minute= stroke volume x heart rate

Reduces blood pressure- because it helps with weight loss 

Healthy veins and arteries- fitness increases number of capillaries, makes vessels more flexible and efficient. 

Hypertrophy- size and volume of heart increases.

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Effect of lifestyle on the CV system:

Rest- essential to recovery, allows the heart to grow and number of capillaries to increase.

Factors that have a negative effect on CV system:

High cholesterol- LDLs more than HDLs, high concentation in blood, build up of fatty deposits, leads to blockages in arteries and heart problems.

Recreational drugs- cigarettes raise blood pressure as they release adrenaline which constricts arteries, tobacco leads to blood clots/heart attacks/strokes, alcohol.

Sedentary lifestyle- inactivity means CV system doesn't get benefits of exercise.

Stress- increases blood pressure and elevated heart rate.

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Breathing in- diaphragm moves down, ribcage moves up and out, intercostal muscles contract, volume of chest cavity increases

Breathing out- diaphragm moves up, ribcage moves down and in, intercostal muscles relax, volume of chest cavity decreases

Respiratory system functions:

1. brings oxygen into the body

2. takes carbon dioxide out of the body

Oxgen inhaled- 20 % Exhaled- 16%

Carbon Dioxide inhaled- 0.04% Exhaled- 4%

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Gas exchange at the alveoli:

Alveoli are covered with capillaries. Gaseous exchange is the 'swapping' of oxgen and carbon dioxide due to the pressure gradients of the gases at the site of exchange.

Higher % of oxygen in the lungs is higher than in the capillaries so it diffuses into the blood. Vice versa with carbon dioxide.

Aerobic Respiration - WITH oxygen   Anerobic Respiration- WITHOUT oxygen

Immediate effects of exercise on the Respiratory System

Oxygen Debt- (during anerobic exericse) The extra oxygen consumed during strenous activity compared with the normal amount which would be consumed over the same amount of time at rest.

Breathing quickens and deepens- (repays oxgen debt)

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Long term benefits:

Improved effectiveness of lungs- better delivery of oxygen to the working muscles so the body can cope better

Increased blood vessels- more oxygen can get into the blood and to the muscles

Vital capacity increases- because the lungs become more efficient

More alveoli avaliable- more oxygen can be absorbed and more carbon dioxide can be taken away.

Smoking damages the alveoli and lungs, making them less efficient. Therefore it is difficult to get in oxygen in and carbon dioxide out causing shortness of breath. Smokers hearts have to work harder because it it harded to get the oxygen that they require so they feel tired.

Efficiency of RS- Tidal Volume- amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath. Vital capacity- maximum amount of air in and out of lungs with greatest inspiration and expiration.

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Muscular system-all the muscles in the body and how they work, it is the driving force behind movement which happens by muscles contracting and lengthening. Muscles define body shape and maintain posture. They work voluntarily through planned contraction or involuntarily e.g internal organs.

Voluntary muscles bring about movement, they can be consciouslly controlled and be trained to be stronger and work for longer. Long and thin - CONTRACT- Short and thick.

Muscles and Movement- muscles are attached to bones by tendons and are made of many cells or muscle fibres. When the fibres contract/pull against the skeleton movement occurs. They cannot PUSH.

When a muscle contracts it pulls on a bone producing movement at a joint. As muscles cannot push the joint must move to allow the bone to move in the opposite direction. A second muscle pulls the bone away.

Muscles are arraged in ANTAGONISTIC  pairs so when one muscle contracts the other relaxes so the joint works e.g. elbow joint, knee joint.

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1. Deltoid- gives the rounded shape to the shoulders, takes away arm from upper body, used to lift the arms above the head e.g serving in tennis. Strenghtened by military press

2.Trapezius- attached to head and neck at the top and shoulder below. Function is to lift the shoulder, brace it back and rotate the shoulder blade. Developed with rowing/shoulder shrugs

3.Latissimus dorsi- broad sheet of muscle from lower spine to the humerus (bone in upper arm). It abducts to bring the arms towards from the body. It rotates to draw them back and inwards to the body. Developed with pull ups

4. Pectorals- covers the chest, adducts the arm, moves it toward the body and draw the arm forwards to rotate it inwards. Important in swimming strokes front crawl and butterfly. Bench press strengthens it.

5.Abdominals- they hold the stomach in, make flexing, bending forward and rotating to the side possible, helps posture. Strengthened with sit ups/cruches.

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6.Biceps and 7.Triceps- work as a pair. Bicep at the front of the upper arm, tricep back of the upper arm. Straightened/extended arm = triceps contract, biceps relax. Involved with throwing, developed with curls or dips.

8.Gluteal muscles- form the buttocks, largest gluteus maximus, attached to the thigh bone. It pulls the leg backwards, extension of the leg. Used in running, maintaining good posture. Developed with squats/lunges/leg press.

9.Quadriceps- on the front of the upper leg, four of them, they extend or straighten the leg at the knee joint i.e kicking a ball. Strengthened with squats.

10. Hamstrings- back of the leg from the pelvis to the shin, they bend the knee and its tendons. Important for sprinting when legs bend. Strengthened with leg curls.

11.Gastrocnemius- forms the calf muscle, function is to point the toes away from the foot (plantar flex), used in running:pushing onto the toes.

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Immediate effects of exercise on the muscular system:

Exercise increases the demand for oxygen and glycogen to the muscles, oxygen can be provided  aerobically but if the intensity increases still lactic acid builds up . This ends the exercise as muscle aches and cramps begin.

How muscles work:

Isometric contractions: Muscle contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter e.g when pressing against a stationary object, held press up.

Isotonic contraction: Muscle contraction that results in limb movement, one contracts, one relaxes e.g. press ups.

Long term effects of exercise on the muscular system:

Increased muscle size, hypertrophy- muscles become damaged, when they are rebuilt they become stronger, increases muscle mass and strength and endurance and power. Better posture, stronger tendons/ligaments, firmer body, less risk of injury.

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Potential injuries to the muscular system:

Muscle atrophy: loss of muscle strength and mass when training stops.

Soft tissue injuries to muscles: tears, pulls and strains, the small muscle fibres are torn from their attachment to a tendon. These fibres relax and contract quickly during exercise and this can cause connective tissue and the blood vessels inside them to tear.

A warm up is essential to minimise the potential of injury as it gradually warms the muscles. A cool down disperse lactic acid so reduces aches and stiffness.

Treatment for muscular injury: RICE treatment is used for muscle strains.

Rest: allows the muscles to repair damage, rebuild fibres and strengthen/develop.

Diet: important for recovery as the energy stores need to be replenished with carbs and fluids. Protein helps to repair/rebuild themuscular system.

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Perfomance enhancing drugs: supplements such as protein pills used to build and repair muscles, not necessary with a good diet. Some athletes use banned substances like Anabolic steroids that strengthen muscles and speed up recovery.

How does a strong muscular system help in everyday life?

Strength is necessary in everyday life to:

1. increase work capacity

2. decrease the chance of injury

3. prevent low back pain- a common problem

4. improve or prevent poor posture- a common problem

5. improve athletic performance

6. aid rehabilitation after illness or injury

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The Skeletal System- includes all the bones in the body, it maintains the body's shape and supports it, it provides a structure that the muscles are attached to.


1. Movement- where bones meet joints are formed and they act as levers. Tendons attach the bones to muscles enabling a variety of movement.

2. Support- supports the body in a variety of positions such as standing, sitting, lying. Also more complicated postitions such as a handstand. Bones give the body shape and the skeleton acts as a framework for the body.

3.Protection- The cranium protects the brain, spine protects the spinal chord, ribs protect the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, stomach and kidneys.


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The Structure of Joints:

To prevent pain through friction the ends of the bones in a synovial joint are  covered with cartilage. This is made of cells which are surrounded by fluid. Cartilage is elastic so it can cushion and protect the end of bones. Surrounding a joint is a capsule which produces synovial fluid to lubricate it.

Movement at  Joints:                                

Hinge Joints- the ELBOW for example allows the arm to bend or straighten, muscles involved are biceps for flex and triceps for extend.

The KNEE is another example, the shin bone is hinged on the thigh bone so that it can be flexed/extended. The knee joint can also be rotated slightly but not fully because there it is not a socket joint. The cruciate ligaments tie the bones together. There is cartilage on the condyles of the bones for lubrication and there is more synvovial fluid because of the strain.



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Ball and Socket Joints-  SHOULDER and HIP joints, the head of the long bone is shaped like a ball and fits into a socket in the shape of a cup. Shoulder had more freedom. The shoulder joint can perform flexion (bring forward in a dive), extension (swing backwards in a dive), adduction, abduction and rotation.

How to work them out:

If the angle at the joint becomes smaller= FLEXION

If the angle at the joint becomes bigger= EXTENSION

If the movement it taking away from the body= ABDUCTION

If the action is adding to the body=ADDUCTION

If the movement is around= ROTATION

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The effects or Exercise on the Bones:

Exercise can increase bone density. When bones become heavier they also become stronger.

Ligaments and Tendons become thicker and stronger. This increases joint flexibility and allows more power in movement.

The importance of weight-bearing exercise- bones become lighter and weaker with age and this can be a problem if too much bone is lost because bones break easily (osteoporosis). Exercise whish strenghtens the bones can prevent this or delay it. Weight bearing exercises such as walking,running, tennis and aerobics are good as they put pressure on bones so increase their strength.

Injuries to bones:

Fractures- a broken or cracked bone caused by a blow or from a severe twisting or wrenching of a joint. The symptons include pain at the site of injury

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and an inability to move it if it is a limb. The point of injury will be tender and swelling or bruising may occur later. Deformity is another obvious sympton.

Types of Fractures: Closed- the skin over the break is not damaged. In Compound fractures the broken bone protrudes through the skin. Simple fractures take place in one line with no displacement of the bone. Greenstick fractures are included in simple, as the bone is only part broken. Stress fractures happen as a result of muscles being fatigued/overused and therefore being unable to absorb shock. Other factors that can cause stress factors include: increasing intensity rapidly, playing on unfamiliar surfaces, wearing ill fitting or poor quality shoes.

Injuries to Joints:

Tennis and golfer's elbow- both are overuse injuries to the tendons at the elbow joints. The main sympton is pain on the outside of the elbow.

Disolocations- when a bone at a joint is forced out of it's normal position often due to a hard blow. The obvious sign is deformity and swelling, very painful too.

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Sprains- a damaged ligament, one of the most common is a twisted ankle. A sprained ankle means that the foot has been inverted/turned inwards, tearing the ligaments.

Torn Cartilage-  tearing cartilage for example at the knee is caused by pivoting on one foot.

Treatments- RICE process

R=REST, stop playing or training

I=Ice, apply pressure with ice, not for too long as can damage skin. Cold provides some pain relief  and limits swelling by reducing blood flow to the injured area

C=COMPRESSION, use pressure to hold the ice on the injury, limits swelling and provides pain relief sometimes.

E=ELEVATION, raise the injury and keep it there, reduces swelling

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A way to prevent some injuries is by making sure bones stay healthy by eating a balanced diet.

DIet and the Skeletal system:

Eating a balanced calcium rich diet helps the bones to grow and increase in density.

Vitamin D is essential to the growth and maintenance of healthy bones and helps with the absorption of calcium.

Smoking and too much alcohol have a toxic effect on bones.

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