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Research Methodology
Framing an operationalised hypothesis
Research hypothesis: This develops from the research question.
Experimental hypothesis: This is so called because it should clearly state what is
going to be measured.
Null hypothesis: This is used when statistical tests are included in the research
design. It is a statement of `no difference' that the statistical test will prove or
One-tailed hypothesis: This has a direction.
Two-tailed hypothesis: This has no direction.…read more

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Case study: Detailed study that involves the collection of a wide variety of data on an
individual or small group.
The term ecological validity refers to how well a study can be related to or reflects everyday, real
life. Studies with high ecological validity can be generalised beyond the setting they were carried out
in, whereas studies low in ecological validity cannot.
Samples and sampling
Random: Identifying the entire target population and then selecting from this total
group.…read more

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Experimenter bias: different researchers might carry out the research process in
slightly different ways which may favour the experimenter favouring a certain
research outcome.
Demand characteristics: different procedures will have a different effect on the
participants, who may respond according to what they feel is expected of them.
Situational bias: different procedures or situations will have a different effect on the
participants and by using standardised procedures it is hoped that all participants
have the same experiences.…read more

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Nominal Ordinal/Interval
Correlation Chi-square Spearman's Rank
Independent Measures Chi-square Man-Whitney U
Repeated Measures/ Sign Test Wilcoxon
Matched Pairs
6…read more

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Research Methods
An experiment is a research method used by psychologists which involves the
manipulation of variables in order to discover cause and effect. It differs from
non-experimental methods in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one
variable, while trying to keep all other variables constant.
The two main types of 'true' experiments are laboratory experiments and field
experiments.…read more

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If the independent variable is the only thing that is
changed then it must be responsible for any change in the dependent variable.
Laboratory experiments allow for precise control of variables.…read more

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It is recommended that participants in experiments are effectively debriefed and that
the participants are clear that they can withdraw from the study at any time.
It is important to recognise that there are very many areas of human life which
cannot be studied using the experimental method because it would be simply too
unethical to do so.
Field experiments
A field experiment is an experiment that is conducted in `the field '. That is, in a real
world situation.…read more

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A strength of some quasi experiments is that participants are often unaware that
they are taking part in an investigation and they may not be as artificial as laboratory
However, it is argued that with quasi experiments it is harder to establish causal
relationships because the independent variable is not being directly manipulated by
the researcher.
It is worth noting that quasi experiments are very common in psychology because
ethically and practically they are the only design that can be used.…read more


Izzy Mason

Thank you,it helped with both my A2 and also my AS retake as well (I was 2 UMS marks off an A).


Great resource!



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