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Rachel James

G544 revision
Research Methods


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Research Methodology

Framing an operationalised hypothesis

Research hypothesis: This develops from the research question.

Experimental hypothesis: This is so called because it should clearly state what is
going to be measured.

Null hypothesis: This is used when statistical tests are included in the research
design. It is a statement of…

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Case study: Detailed study that involves the collection of a wide variety of data on an
individual or small group.

The term ecological validity refers to how well a study can be related to or reflects everyday, real
life. Studies with high ecological validity can be generalised beyond the setting…

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Experimenter bias: different researchers might carry out the research process in
slightly different ways which may favour the experimenter favouring a certain
research outcome.

Demand characteristics: different procedures will have a different effect on the
participants, who may respond according to what they feel is expected of them.

Situational bias:…

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Nominal Ordinal/Interval

Correlation Chi-square Spearman's Rank

Independent Measures Chi-square Man-Whitney U

Repeated Measures/ Sign Test Wilcoxon
Matched Pairs


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Research Methods


An experiment is a research method used by psychologists which involves the
manipulation of variables in order to discover cause and effect. It differs from
non-experimental methods in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one
variable, while trying to keep all other variables constant.
The two…

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experimental method allows us to draw conclusions with far more certainty than any
non-experimental method. If the independent variable is the only thing that is
changed then it must be responsible for any change in the dependent variable.
Laboratory experiments allow for precise control of variables. The purpose of control…

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It is recommended that participants in experiments are effectively debriefed and that
the participants are clear that they can withdraw from the study at any time.
It is important to recognise that there are very many areas of human life which
cannot be studied using the experimental method because it…

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A strength of some quasi experiments is that participants are often unaware that
they are taking part in an investigation and they may not be as artificial as laboratory
However, it is argued that with quasi experiments it is harder to establish causal
relationships because the independent variable is…


Izzy Mason


Thank you,it helped with both my A2 and also my AS retake as well (I was 2 UMS marks off an A).



Great resource!




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