Comparison Table for Research Methods

Comparing research methods with examples

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
Issue Research Method Research Method Similar /
Experiments (LAB) Self Report Different
Low High
Loftus & Palmer ­ ppts were Becker ­ mothers were
Ecological Validity
in an artificial environment interviewed on their perception
D
to child's asthma
Quantitative Data Quantitative / Qualitative
Milgram attained quantitative Becker used an interview to
Quantitative / data about the ppts. understand mother's
Qualitative Data perception of their child's
S/D
asthma
Situational / Dispositional Dispositional
Bandura used nursery school Wakefield was based on
Situational /
children who were in a room personal opinion S/D
Dispositional
with models of different
aggression levels
Nature / Nurture Nature / Nurture
Baron ­ Cohen looked at
patients with Tourette's and
Nature / Nurture Asperger's which is natural S
and tested their ability to test
emotion which is more about
nature
Scientific Not Scientific
Scientific? Sperry used electrodes to Based on opinion not science D
understand split brain patients
Deterministic Free Will
Deterministic / Free
Baron Cohen ­ variables Ppts can say what they want D
Will
controlled
Reductionist Holistic
Different explanatory reasons
Reductionist / Holistic
can be used for one topic
D
Valid Not Valid
Valid?
Supported by science Social Desirability
D
Reliable Reliable
Reliable?
Easily replicable Easily replicable
S
Not generalisable Generalisable
Sample sizes are not usually Keating ­ over 3,000 ppts from
Generalisable?
big or targeted at specific x section of Nigeria
D
people
Useful Useful
Useful? Can use results to explain Gives insight into reasons S
human behaviour & problems behind certain topics
To an extent Applicable
Applicable to
Can be applicable to everyday Results can be applied to S
everyday life
behaviour everyday life
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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
Issue Research Method Research Method Similar /
Experiments (LAB) Observation Different
Low High
Ecological Validity Loftus & Palmer ­ ppts were Pililavin ­ NY subway D
in an artificial environment
Quantitative Data Qualitative Data
Quantitative / Milgram attained quantitative Savage Rambaugh ­ Case
Qualitative Data data about the ppts.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
To an extent Applicable
Applicable to
Can be applicable to everyday Observe people ­ high eco S
everyday life
behaviour validity
Issue Research Method Research Method Similar /
Experiments (LAB) Correlation Different
Low High
Loftus & Palmer ­ ppts were Becker interviewed mothers
Ecological Validity
in an artificial environment on a realistic topic
D
Quantitative Data Quantitative Data
Quantitative / Milgram attained quantitative Becker ­ positive correlation
Qualitative Data data about the ppts.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
Sample sizes are not usually
big or targeted at specific
people
Useful Useful
Useful? Can use results to explain Can see relationship between S
human behaviour & problems 2 variables
To an extent To an extent
Can be applicable to everyday Only some statistics can apply
Applicable to
behaviour to all people in terms of S
everyday life
everyday life
Issue Research Method Research Method Similar /
Observation Self Report Different
High High…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
Applicable Applicable
Applicable to
Observe people ­ high eco Results can be applied to S
everyday life
validity everyday life
Issue Research Method Research Method Similar /
Observation Correlation Different
High High
Pililavin ­ NY subway Becker interviewed mothers
Ecological Validity
on a realistic topic
S
Qualitative Data Quantitative Data
Quantitative / Savage Rambaugh ­ Case Becker ­ positive correlation
Qualitative Data study with only qualitative scatter graphs
D
data
Situational Situational /…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
Measures what it intends to
measure ­ relationship
between 2 variables
Not reliable Reliable
Reliable? Not replicable ­ different Usually replicable D
people ~ different results
Not generalisable Generalisable
Pilliavin ­ took place on Sample targeted at certain
Generalisable?
subway people
D
Bandura ­ school nursery
Useful Useful
Useful? Observations can help explain Can see relationship between S
behaviour 2 variables
Applicable To an extent
Observe people ­ high eco Only some statistics…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH
METHODS [LAB, SELF-REPORT & OBSERVATION]
only / children aged between 5
­ 17)
Holistic Reductionist
Reductionist / Holistic Different explanatory reasons There can be one sole reason D
can be used for one topic to overview the study
Not Valid Valid
Social Desirability Measures what it intends to
Valid?
measure ­ relationship
D
between 2 variables
Reliable Reliable
Reliable?
Easily replicable Usually replicable
S
Generalisable Generalisable
Generalisable? Keating ­ over 3,000 ppts Sample targeted at certain S
from…read more

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