Mary I & her Rule

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 08-11-18 21:24

Mary I and her Ministers

Mary became queen on a wave of public approval. But the reasons for this cannot be clear. Was it that the succession had passed to the next Tudor, the legal heir? Or was it that people wanted Catholicism restored?

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Mary I's aims

  • Mary I's primary aim was to restore Catholicism to England.
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Queen Regnant

  • Mary I had no precedent for her role as queen regnant (a monarch in her own right, not through her husband).
  • Many people did not like the idea of being ruled by a woman.
  • This reflects the strength of 'patriarchal' ideas in Tudor society.
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Mary I's ministers

  • Following the plot to change the line of succession, Mary I did not have many allies in the Privy Chamber.
  • Stephen Gardiner, a Catholic who had been imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, became a key advisor to Mary I.
    • He was made the Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor.
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Mary I's early years

  • Mary I was the daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.
  • During her childhood, Mary received a thorough education.
  • Following Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and marriage to Anne Boleyn, Mary was deemed illegitimate.
  • Following years of conflict, Mary reluctantly recognised her father as the head of the Church of England.
  • But Mary always remained a Catholic
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Mary I's Royal Authority

To fulfil her aims, Mary I needed a loyal government to support her.

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Privy Council

  • Mary increased the size of the Privy Council and included more Catholics. She also included experienced moderates from Edward VI’s reign, like Paget.
  • The Privy Council became increasingly important, especially managing the day-to-day business of government.
  • Mary did not consult her Privy Council over her marriage but turned to Charles V’s ambassador, Simon Renard. She also relied on him heavily for advice
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Papal Supremacy

Heresy laws were restored in 1554 by the Act of Repeal.

  • Denying the papal supremacy was a heresy punishable by death. -The Act of Supremacy was passed in 1555.
  • This meant Papal supremacy over the English Church was restored
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Papal Supremacy

Heresy laws were restored in 1554 by the Act of Repeal.

  • Denying the papal supremacy was a heresy punishable by death. -The Act of Supremacy was passed in 1555.
  • This meant Papal supremacy over the English Church was restored
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persecution

  • Following the heresy laws, Mary I persecuted Protestants.
  • For example, Archbishop Cranmer was arrested.
  • 284 Protestants were executed.
  • Protestants who were burned at the stake soon became martyrs.
  • This is why Mary I was given the nickname, 'Bloody Mary
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Relations with Parliament

  • Mary’s religious legislation passed through parliament although a significant minority of MPs opposed it.
  • In 1555, Parliament defeated Mary’s bill to seize the property of Protestant exiles who had fled abroad.
  • Parliament would not agree to restore lands taken in the dissolution of the monasteries to the Catholic Church.
  • Overall, parliament cooperated with Mary. There was opposition to some measures, but not enough to derail her most important policies.
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Historical interpretation

  • Mary I is often remembered as an unpopular queen.
    • Protestants constructed this image after Mary I's death.
  • Although she did execute Protestants, her father did the same. This forces us to question her nickname, 'Bloody Mary'.
  • Historians such as Duffy suggest that many welcomed the restoration of Catholicism.
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Historical interpretation of Mary I

We should be critical of how Mary I was presented by Protestants and consider how popular restoring Catholicism was.

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Historical interpretation of Mary I

  • Although she did execute Protestants, her father did the same. This forces us to question her nickname, 'Bloody Mary'.

Duffy's view

  • Historians such as Duffy suggest that many welcomed the restoration of Catholicism.
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Problems of succession Facing Mary I

The marriage issue

  • Mary I wanted to marry and produce a Roman Catholic heir.
  • She favoured her second cousin, Philip II of Spain, son of Charles V.
  • In 16th century marriages, the wife was subordinate to her husband. If this was so, Philip II would become the effective King of England.
  • If Philip II was King of England, it was feared that he would subordinate England's interests to Spain's.
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Problems of succession Facing Mary I

The matter of succession caused tensions between Mary I and her government. She wanted to marry King Philip II of Spain. This was not a popular choice.

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the marriage treaty

The marriage treaty

  • Parliament tried to limited Phillip II's power through a treaty in April 1554.
    • Philip II would have the title 'King of England' and would be joint sovereign, but would have no sovereign authority in his own right.
    • Any heir born would inherit England and the Netherlands but not Spain.
    • England would help the Netherlands if they were invaded by France.
    • Philip II could not have a claim to the English throne Mary I died without children.
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An unpopular marriage

  • The marriage between Mary I and Philip II was one of political convenience, not love. Philip II spent little time in England.
  • In 1554, Parliament rejected a proposed law that would have included him alongside Mary with regard to treason.
  • In 1555, Parliament prevented Philip’s coronation as king.
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The heir issue

  • Mary was 37 when she came to the throne. Although she twice thought she was pregnant, she was not.
  • Without an heir, the Protestant Princess Elizabeth would become England’s next monarch. This was unacceptable to Mary because:
    • Elizabeth was Protestant.
    • Anne Boleyn caused Henry VIII to divorce her own mother.
  • Mary I only named Elizabeth as her heir when it was clear she was dying and only 11 days before her actual death.
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Potential fears about Mary I's marriage to Philip

  • Mary's heir would be Catholic 
  • As Mary would be subordinate to her husband, Phillip II would effectively become King
  • If Phillip was King of England, he could put spains interests before England's
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