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The need to rebrand
Regeneration: Positively transforming the economy of a place that has displayed symptoms
of decline. There is always an environmental focus (improve derelict infrastructure and
quality of environment), social focus (overcome spiral of decline and deprivation), a
economic focus (improve job opportunities and bring income) as well as a political
dimension (raise money for projects through `bid industry').
Rebranding: Developing a place to reposition its image and change peoples idea of it,
helping to sell the place to a target audience.
Reimaging: Positively changing the reputation of a place through specific improvements
such as increasing sporting excellence.
Why do places need to
1)Industry in decline: 1980's
government planned changes
to British economy which
caused mines & secondary
industries to close causing
huge unemployment.
2)Growth of tertiary
industry: replaced lost jobs.…read more

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Cities may need to rebrand because of: the increasing cost of upkeep, developing and
remodelling, loss of retailing functions from CBD's to out of town shops, and loss of offices
and commercial functions from CBD's to suburban edge-of-town locations. This can be a
catalyst for other problems including increased crime and loss of tourism. Rebranding must
be used to find the CBD again.
Case study: Birmingham
The reputation of Birmingham was that
of a city wedded to a disruptive and
powerful workforce, at odds with weak
management. So in the 1990's when
they wanted to reconstruct the city's
image they were stuck between:
Historical importance of car industry.
A series of negative associations
linked with that industry.
It has also been closely identified with
the failure of modernism (a type of
architecture which became popular in
50's/60's, relying on simplistic iron,
steel, concrete and glass constructions).…read more

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1976 National Exhibition Centre (NEC) opened greenbelt land near Birmingham
International Airport.
International Convention Centre (ICC) and Symphony hall opened and
Late 1980's development of areas around Broad Street including a hotel, and extensions
and refurbishment of a theatre.
1993 Development of Brindley Place now home to Sea Life Centre, Ikon Gallery
and Royal bank of Scotland.
Millennium Point opened as part of Eastside redevelopment of city as well
2002 as competition of phase 2 of custard factory redevelopment home to 100
studio offices and shop.
2003 Bullring development opened creating 8000 new jobs and over 35 million
visitors annually.
2005 Completion of Matthew Boulton Centre teaching over 500 courses to 7000
The future? Big plans for redevelopment of New Street Station and continued
investment in Eastside.…read more

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Countryside in crisis?
In recent years the view of rural life is under threat has become prominent, partly due to
media coverage of farming crises, such as the 2001 foot-and-mouth outbreak. In addition the
number of rural pressure groups has risen and sought to highlight the difficulties faced by
rural residents, creating an anti-idyllic view of the countryside, as backward,
unsophisticated, environmentally damaged, boring, sleepy and slow.…read more

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Case study: Regeneration in E.London
In 1981 the last of London's docks closed and until the mid 70's these were the biggest docks in the UK.
However as ships got bigger the need for people working in the docks lowered meaning 12000 jobs
were lost and over 60% of adult men were unemployed in 1981. It also meant the land was left derelict
and unattractive to investors but did mean 21km2 of land was available for redevelopment close to the
city. Key features include:
Canary Wharf ­ global banks, newspapers etc. Huge skyscrapers ­ global headquarters.
100000 commuters now travel to work in these towers daily so transport developments have been done
to ensure commuters can reach work including:
Extending the London Underground New road links
Developing Docklands light railway London City airport
However it has been criticised as not impacting on the local people and environment and that it still
suffers deprivation, poor health, poverty and poor environmental quality.
Canning Town Millwall (location of CW).
Ethnicity (%) 61 white, 6.4 Asian or Asian British, 26.9 66.6 white, 18/4 Asian or Asian British,
Black or Black British, and 5.7 is other 5.5 Black or Black British and 9.5 other
Health (%) 65.0 = Good, 20.7 = Not good 75.7 = good, 11.4 = Not good
Employment 37.6 = Full time, 8.1 = Part time, 9.1 = 52.7 = Full time, 5.0 = part time, 4.3 =
(%) sick/disabled sick/disabled
Highest qual 43.1 = No qualification and 16.5 = uni 20.8 = No qualification and 45.2 = Uni
(%) degree degree.…read more

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