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Asses the impacts of Counterurbanisation (Use examples)10 marks
West Sussex county has seen dramatic changes in the nature of many of its rural settlements in the
last 30 years. As it lies just outside the London Greenbelt, some villages have been victims of the
pressure of counterurbanisation. As personal mobility has increased through car ownership, road
building, and more rapid rail links, residential development has "leap-frogged" the Green Belt,
creating considerable pressure for dormitory expansion in the most accessible rural settlements.
The population of West Sussex has grown at 30 times the national average, having more than
doubled since 1945.
Counterurbanisation has had impacts on the rural environment. Traffic levels on West Sussex's major
roads are 25% above the national average for Counties, creating lots of noise and air pollution.
Southwater has also been impacted by rapid expansion, due to lots of counter urbanisation.
Southwater has grown from a little village of 1500 residents to a major metropolitan village of over
10,000, with the potential to grow to about 20,000 in 2026. Many families with young children have
located in the rural areas to seek pleasant environment which has resulted in primary schools being
over stretched and overcrowded, with many classes being taught in temporary portacabins.
Currently there is no secondary school in Southwater which poses real problems. The council have
proposed a £15million development on a 30 acre site for a secondary school in South water.
However, this will take at least 18months and no other school has been given the go ahead,
therefore teens must go to school in overcrowded schools in nearby Horsham.
Other impacts are;
changes in socio-economic status. Counterurbanisation leads to increasing average income levels
and socio-economic status within the village.
Change in the demographic structure. It tends to cause a rapid influx of high socio-economic status
couples aged 30-45 with young or teenage children who are seeking more spacious lving conditions
and pleasant environments for family life.
Property prices often rise sharply in recipient areas of counterurbanisation, fuelled by increasing
Explain the causes of suburbanisation in richer parts of the world (8)
Suburbanisation refers to the process by which the suburbs accumulate, caused by population
growth and the net outward migration of people within the city over time.
The increase in personal mobility often causes suburbanisation to occur. Improvements in public
transport, particularly electric trams has allowed middle and high class residents to live at increasing
distances from the CBD and commute to work. Hence, the inner suburbs grew as ribbon
developments along these radial public transport routes. The bus also contributes to the
developments of suburbanisation.
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Government subsidy is another factor. After WW1 the British governments provided subsides to
local authorities to provide housing to improve living conditions for those returning from military
service in the Great War. The availability of these subsidies for "House for Heroes" continued well
into the 1930's, leading to the development of extensive council housing estates in what are now
the inner suburbs.
The increase of money lending has also causes suburbanisation.…read more
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cater for this marketing with large numbers of edge-of-CBD and inner city apartments built with
young single people/couples in mind.
However, consequences have also been present. The first effect is the increase of residential
population and population density in the inner city.
It can be a positive in that it uses derelict land and brings about infrastructure improvements and
environmental renewal in declined or derelict inner city areas and CBD zones of discard.…read more