The Development of Attachments
Definition:Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people characterised by mutual involvement and affection. In psychology the term is mostly referred to the bond that forms between a caregiver and the infant.
lSchaffer and Emerson (1964) Stages of Attachment Bowlby (1969), Phases of Attachment
Secure and Insecure Attachment
Attachments may vary amongst individuals. lAinsworth and Bell’s ( 1970 ) , strange situation categorises attachment into 3 types … Type B : Securely Attached Type A : Avoidant – Insecure Type C : Resistant Insecure l Main & Cassidy (1988) , later identified Type D : Disorganised . Evalutaion lCross – Cultural Variation Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg ( 1988), Cross – Cultural Variations in secure and insecure attachment. Grossman and Grossman (1991), Insecure behaviour in German Children. Takahashi (1990), The strange situation amongst Japanese children .
Monotropy and Multiple Attachments
Bowlby claimed that any young child has an innate tendency to become attached to one specific individual , and that this attachment is significantly different from other subsequent attachments. Evaluation of Monotropy Caribbean children Thomas ( 1998) Primary Attachments in the Ganda Tribe. Ainsworth (1967)
Breastfeeding amongst the EFe Tribe Tronick (1992) Kibbutzim in Israeal Fox ( 1977) Learning Theory This theory is based on the idea that an Infant will become attached through classical and operant conditioning. Therefore the person who feeds and gives Greatest pleasure to the infant will become the infant’s primary caregiver . Evaluation of Learning Theory The formation of love in infant monkeys Harlow and Harlow (1962)
Explanations of Attachment
Learning Theory This theory is based on the idea that an Infant will become attached through classical and operant conditioning. Therefore the person who feeds and gives Greatest pleasure to the infant will become the infant’s primary caregiver . Evaluation of Learning Theory The formation of love in infant monkeys Harlow and Harlow (1962)
Explanations of Attachment -Bowlby’s Theory
Innate programming The Critical Period The Continuity Hypothesis The Minnesota Longitudunal Study (Scroufe et al 1999) . From the age of 12 months ratings of attachments between children were made . Those who were rated as securely attached were also rated as being more popular , having more initiative , and being higher in social competence , self-confidence and self-esteem during adolescence. This provides support for Bowlby’s continuity Hypothesis as early attachments can be linked to later life characteristics . Hazen and Shaver (1987) Love Quiz
Deprivation and Privation
Bowlby’s Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis Bowlby believed that children deprived of maternal care and affection in early childhood would suffer some degree of emotional , social or intellectual retardation in later life . Evaluation A study of 44 Juvenile thieves Privation refers to the lack or non-development of the attachment bond . Evaluation The effects of Privation Hodges and Tizard ( 1989)
This is a form of care for infants and children, offered by someone other than close family , taking place outside the home . This often occurs during the day for a period of 3-9 hours, whilst the primary care giver is at work. Day Care is an option that is available for parents who are in full/part time employment, to ensure that there children are looked after. Although this is much of a convenience within today’s society, there is much controversy surrounding the effects of day care on the development of children. This is due to the research proposed by Bowlby’s (1953) maternal deprivation hypothesis. The research suggested that there is a critical period (before the age of 2) , where a child should not be separated from the primary care giver , and should that occur it would result in the child being emotionally disturbed.
Two areas that care day may affect are cognitive d
Cognitive development focuses on a child’s mental ability. It has been suggested that should separation from the primary care giver occur during early childhood , there may be disruptions in cognitive development. It has also been suggested that separation from the main care giver may also effect a child’s ability to form relationships with family and friends in later life .
Advantages vs Disadvantages of Day care on cogniti
Advantages Bryant ( 1980) , Day care provides a stimulating environment . High quality care can be beneficial for child’s development . Disadvantages Russell ( 1999), day care is continuously linked to poor cognitive development . Ruhm ( 2000), Children who spent time in day care under the age of 3 , had lower reading and maths skills .
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantage Children who attend day care are more popular and can cope better in social situations . ( Clarke-Stewart) Disadvantage Children who spent an excessive amount of time in day care , were more insecure than those raised at home . ( Belsky and Rovine 1998).