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Psychology AQA A Early social development




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Psychology AQA A Early social development


TYPES OF ATTACHMENT
What signs of attachment do babies show?

Separation anxiety ­ visibly distressed when the caregiver leaves.
Reunion pleasure ­ visibly pleased when caregiver returns.
Using caregiver as a safe base ­ happy to explore surroundings but often making eye
contact and…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


6. Mum leaves, baby left alone. Separation anxiety.
7. Stranger returns and tries to comfort Stranger anxiety.
baby.
8. Caregiver returns and comforts baby. Reunion behaviour.
Stranger leaves.


The Baltimore Study

Ainsworth et al (1971) conducted the Baltimore study to investigate whether the mother's…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


Easy ­ Eat and sleep regularly and accept new experiences (under 50%)
Difficult ­ Finds eating and sleeping a problem, as with all new experiences (10%)
Slow-to-warm-up ­ Takes a while to get used to new experiences (15%)

According to this hypothesis, easy babies…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development




CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN ATTACHMENT
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) did a meta-analysis of attachment research in different
cultures which had used the Strange Situation. Countries included Germany (3 studies), Great Britain
(1 study), Israel (2 studies), Japan (2 studies) and the United States (18…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


Overall, how the child is brought up in their family causes their attachment type, and not just the
culture.




EVALUATING CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN ATTACHMENT
Evaluation of research into cultural variations in attachment


Posada and Jacobs (2001) noted that Rothbaum et al (2000) argued that…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


designer's culture rather the culture
being studied (imposed etic ­ the use of
a technique designed by one culture but
imposed on another).




DISRUPTION OF ATTACHMENT
Deprivation ­ A child has formed an attachment and is separated from their attachment figure.

Short-term effects of…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


Bowlby conducted a study called `the forty-four thieves' study in 1946. The aim of the study was to
investigate the causes of juvenile delinquency, particularly to see if this behaviour was related to
maternal deprivation. He used clients from the child guidance clinic where…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


diagnosed it in those who had
experienced separation.
Spitz and Wolf (1946)

Spitz and Wolf studied 100 normal, emotionally healthy children who became severely depressed
after staying in hospital away from their families. They found that:

If the separation lasted less than 3 months,…

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Psychology AQA A Early social development


Tizard and Hodges decided to conduct research into the effects of privation. The particular aim of
the study was to investigate how living in a care home and being private would affect children's
social development. It was a natural experiment (because privating a child…

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