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Psychology AQA A Early social development
TYPES OF ATTACHMENT
What signs of attachment do babies show?
Separation anxiety ­ visibly distressed when the caregiver leaves.
Reunion pleasure ­ visibly pleased when caregiver returns.
Using caregiver as a safe base ­ happy to explore surroundings but often making eye
contact and staying reasonably close (maintaining proximity).
Stranger anxiety ­ visibly distressed when approached by an unfamiliar person.
When a baby is born, it doesn't have any attachments.…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
6. Mum leaves, baby left alone. Separation anxiety.
7. Stranger returns and tries to comfort Stranger anxiety.
baby.
8. Caregiver returns and comforts baby. Reunion behaviour.
Stranger leaves.
The Baltimore Study
Ainsworth et al (1971) conducted the Baltimore study to investigate whether the mother's
behaviour towards the baby causes individual differences in attachment. 26 pairs of mothers and
infants from Baltimore were studied ­ babies were new-borns at the start of the study.…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
Easy ­ Eat and sleep regularly and accept new experiences (under 50%)
Difficult ­ Finds eating and sleeping a problem, as with all new experiences (10%)
Slow-to-warm-up ­ Takes a while to get used to new experiences (15%)
According to this hypothesis, easy babies are more likely to form secure attachments, whilst difficult
babies are more likely to form insecure attachments. Slow-to-warm-up babies will form an insecure
attachment unless their mother is patient.…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN ATTACHMENT
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) did a meta-analysis of attachment research in different
cultures which had used the Strange Situation. Countries included Germany (3 studies), Great Britain
(1 study), Israel (2 studies), Japan (2 studies) and the United States (18 studies).…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
Overall, how the child is brought up in their family causes their attachment type, and not just the
culture.
EVALUATING CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN ATTACHMENT
Evaluation of research into cultural variations in attachment
Posada and Jacobs (2001) noted that Rothbaum et al (2000) argued that
there was much evidence supporting the attachment theory and research rooted
universality of attachments from many in Western culture cannot be applied to
countries. every culture.…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
designer's culture rather the culture
being studied (imposed etic ­ the use of
a technique designed by one culture but
imposed on another).
DISRUPTION OF ATTACHMENT
Deprivation ­ A child has formed an attachment and is separated from their attachment figure.…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
Bowlby conducted a study called `the forty-four thieves' study in 1946. The aim of the study was to
investigate the causes of juvenile delinquency, particularly to see if this behaviour was related to
maternal deprivation. He used clients from the child guidance clinic where he worked, interviewing
the 44 child thieves and their parents about early life experiences, including prolonged separation
from their mothers lasting at least a week. He found that:
Of the 44 thieves...…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
diagnosed it in those who had
experienced separation.
Spitz and Wolf (1946)
Spitz and Wolf studied 100 normal, emotionally healthy children who became severely depressed
after staying in hospital away from their families. They found that:
If the separation lasted less than 3 months, recovery from the depression was usually good.
If the separation exceeded 3 months, children rarely recovered from the depression
completely.
Bowlby claimed that the effects of maternal deprivation were permanent.…read more

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Psychology AQA A Early social development
Tizard and Hodges decided to conduct research into the effects of privation. The particular aim of
the study was to investigate how living in a care home and being private would affect children's
social development. It was a natural experiment (because privating a child would be unethical to set
up as an experiment) involving 65 children placed in a care home before 4 months old.…read more

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