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PSYCHOLOGY
STRESS
REVISION
GUIDE

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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
STRESS AS A BODILY RESPONSE;

THE BODY'S RESPONSE TO STRESS, INCLUDING THE PITUATRY ADRENAL SYSTEM AND THE
SYMPATHOMEDULLARY PATHWAY IN OUTLINE
STRESS RELATED ILL NESS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

STRESS IN EVERY DAY LIFE;

LIFE CHANGES AND DAILY HASSLES AS SOURCES OF STRESS
WORKPLACE STRESS INCLUDING THE EFFECTS…

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The central nervous system

The cortex and parts of the limbic system (particularly the amygdale and hippocampus) are involved
in appraising a situation, retrieving memories of similar situations and deciding if the situation is
stressful

The endocrine system

Responsible for the production of hormones and stimulated by the action of…

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STRESS AND ILLNESS

Seyle's General Adaptive System (Gas)

AIMS- to investigate the relationship between long term stress and illness

PROCEDURES- gave rat's repeated daily bacterial injections

FINDINGS- noticed that the rats developed similar stress related symptoms similar to hospital
patients such as gastric ulcers

CONCLUSIONS- led to development of a…

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ecological validity. Another criticism of the study is as it was performed on animals so we cannot
generalise it to humans.

STRESS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Natural immunity- made up of white blood cells in the blood stream attack non-specifically, fast
response system

Specific immunity- Based on cells called lymphocytes,…

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Death of a spouse; Gerra found individuals who had recently experienced unexpected bereavement
show lower levels of lymphocytes compared to non-bereavement controls

Caregiving; caregivers are frequently isolated and have overwhelming
demands on their resources, caregiving can be both emotionally and
physically draining and compared to matched controls those who were…

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correlation shown was also quite weak. It was however ecologically valid as the questionnaire was
based on real life experiences.

DAILY HASSLES

Delongis et al (1982)

Daily hassles-the on-going stresses and strains of daily living

Uplifts- the `pick ups' in everyday life

Research into uplifts

Gervais (2005) compared the life…

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CONCLUSIONS- Type A behaviour patterns increase vulnerability to heart disease. Behaviour
modification programmes can reduce type A behaviour and so this should result in fewer people
getting heart disease.

CRITICISMS- It was not an experimental study so cause and effect cannot be established, other
studies have failed to show the…

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was associated with decreasing illness scores this implies that these factors act in improving
resistance to stress.

Hardiness training (psychological method of stress management)

Focusing: train and encourage to spot signs of stress such as muscle tension, allows
recognition of stressful situations
Reliving stressful situations: analysis of situations in terms…

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Beta blockers: work by reducing the activity of adrenaline and nor adrenaline, they bind to
beta-adrenergic receptors and therefore block the receptor from being stimulate. This
blocks sympathetic arousal and so the heartbeat slows down reducing blood pressure.

Evaluation

Drugs can be prescribed immediately making it a very practical form…

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